Recommendations on the use of colony-stimulating factors in children: conclusions of a European panel

Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Dec;157(12):955-66. doi: 10.1007/s004310050978.


During 1996 and 1997 a panel of European haematologists, oncologists, and neonatologists developed specific paediatric guidelines for the use of colony stimulating factors based on published literature and the clinical experience of these specialists within each of 13 countries. Well established indications for use comprise intervention in patients with life-threatening infection, adjunctive therapy post autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT), mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells for autologous BMT, patients with acquired aplastic anaemia on anti-lymphocyte globulin and cyclosporin regimen, and severe congenital neutropenia. Less clear indications include primary prophylaxis to support dose intensification in children with high risk/advanced malignancies, secondary prophylaxis to prevent neutropenia in patients with a history of severe neutropenia, support therapy in cases of poor marrow function following BMT and for deteriorating marrow function following successful BMT, in neonatal sepsis and non infectious neonatal neutropenia, in drug induced neutropenia and in HIV-positive patients. Treatment is generally well tolerated and granulocyte colony stimulating factor appears better tolerated than granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Economically colony stimulating factors have not been shown to induce excessive costs for a given patient.

Conclusion: In general the adult guidelines are applicable to children but additional considerations (aggressive or very progressive childhood neoplasms, specific indications, neonatal use, congenital disorders) must be taken into account.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation
  • Child
  • Colony-Stimulating Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Europe
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use
  • Hematologic Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Humans
  • Leukemia / drug therapy
  • Neutropenia / drug therapy*


  • Colony-Stimulating Factors
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor