Melanoma x macrophage fusion hybrids acquire increased melanogenesis and metastatic potential: altered N-glycosylation as an underlying mechanism

Pigment Cell Res. 1998 Oct;11(5):299-309. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0749.1998.tb00739.x.


We recently reported that a majority of hybrids generated in vitro between weakly metastatic mouse Cloudman S91 melanoma cells and human or mouse macrophages showed enhanced metastatic potential. With few exceptions, hybrids with enhanced metastatic potential also had elevated basal melanin content and increased responsiveness to MSH compared to parental cells. Here we investigated the hybrid melanotic phenotype in more detail, comparing the pigmentary systems of hybrids and parental Cloudman S91 cells by several techniques. Cells were studied by electron microscopy, cell lysates were analyzed for tyrosinase (E.C. activity, and melanosomal proteins were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Melanosomes in parental Cloudman melanoma cells were few in number and relatively amorphous, whereas those in the hybrids were numerous and heavily pigmented, containing highly organized lattice structures. Both basal and MSH-inducible tyrosinase activities were elevated several fold in hybrids compared to parental cells. Tyrosinase, TRP-2, and LAMP-1 from hybrids migrated more slowly on gels compared to the same proteins from parental melanoma cells, consistent with increased glycosylation. Migration of LAMP-1 from hybrids was similar to that from peritoneal macrophages, which also appeared to be more heavily glycosylated than LAMP-1 from Cloudman cells. By using 3H-glucosamine as a marker of N-glycosylation, its incorporation into tyrosinase and LAMP-1 was found to be elevated in hybrids, suppressed by N-glycosylation inhibitors, and stimulated by MSH to a greater degree in hybrids compared to parental cells. These results indicate N-glycosylation as an important regulatory pathway for MSH-induced melanogenesis and further suggest that altered N-linked glycosylation may be an underlying mechanism for regulation of both melanogenesis and metastasis in macrophage x melanoma hybrids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Glucosamine / metabolism
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Hybrid Cells / metabolism*
  • Hybrid Cells / pathology
  • Immunoblotting
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Melanins / biosynthesis*
  • Melanoma / metabolism*
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Melanosomes / ultrastructure
  • Mice
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Metastasis*
  • Phenotype


  • Melanins
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Glucosamine