The importance of overweight not only for individual health and life expectancy but also for resulting health economics is stressed considering data from Austria. Epidemiology of overweight in Austria shows 8.5% of the population to be morbidly obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] higher than 30) and 14.5% overweight (BMI between 27 and 29.9). Prevalence of overweight in Austria shows a very masked decrease from eastern to the western districts of the country. As in other countries correlation of overweight with cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and systolic blood pressure) was found to be highly significant also in Austrian health screening programs. As far as treatment of overweight and its prevention is concerned not only short term weight loss, but it maintenance is important. Not only a realistic change in feeding behaviour and dieting but also a change in life style including regular physical activity is recommended requiring repeated and long-term controlling by qualified persons of the health profession.