To elucidate if genetic variants in the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2) gene occur that could affect receptor expression and function, we screened for mutations in the promoter and in the coding region of the human B2 gene. In our initial study we analyzed 92 consecutive, unrelated subjects (including 25 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 18 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 25 patients with hypertension, 18 patients with coronary heart disease, and 6 patients with valvular heart disease) using nonradioactive polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis as mutation screening method. We detected eight as yet unknown polymorphic sites in the promoter region of the B2 gene (-845 C/T, -704 C/T, -649 insG, -640 T/C, -536 C/T, -412 C/G, -143 C/T and -78 C/T) with allele frequencies between 0.5 and 13%. One of them (-412 C/G) destroys a Sp1 binding site and abolishes protein binding to this Sp1 site in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human vascular smooth muscle cells. In the protein-coding region one new coding variant (T21M) with the potential to create a truncated receptor isoform was detected. We determined the frequency of the promoter variant at position -412 (C --> G) and the newly identified coding variant (T21M) in extended samples of 69 patients with HCM, 163 patients with DCM, 109 patients with hypertension, and 173 healthy anonymous blood donors. The promoter variant (-412 C/G) was found in one blood donor and the T21M mutation was not found in the control population. Therefore, it appears that these mutations are rare events and the determination of clinical significance will be a demanding task in the future.