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Review
, 12 (1), 147-79

Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance

Affiliations
Review

Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance

G McDonnell et al. Clin Microbiol Rev.

Erratum in

  • Clin Microbiol Rev 2001 Jan;14(1):227

Abstract

Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of active chemical agents (biocides) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics. This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants. The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants. Known mechanisms of microbial resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports.

Figures

FIG. 1
FIG. 1
Descending order of resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants. The asterisk indicates that the conclusions are not yet universally agreed upon.
FIG. 2
FIG. 2
Development of resistance of Bacillus subtilis during sporulation. Roman numerals indicate the sporulation stage from III (engulfment of the forespore) to VII (release of the mature spore). Arabic numbers indicate the time (hours) following the onset of sporulation and the approximate times at which resistance develops against biocides (262). CHG, chlorhexidine; CPC, cetylpyridinium chloride; NaDCC, sodium dichloroisocyanurate.

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