The hypothesis of this investigation was that glucose uptake would be increased in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing hexokinase II (HK II) compared with their nontransgenic littermates (NTG) during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia and treadmill exercise. For insulin experiments, catheters were surgically implanted in the jugular vein and carotid artery for infusions and sampling, respectively. Conscious mice underwent experiments approximately 5 days later in which 4 mU. kg-1. min-1 insulin and variable glucose (n = 7 TG and n = 7 NTG) or saline (n = 5 TG and n = 4 NTG) was infused for 140 min. Over the last 40 min of the experiments, 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose ([2-3H]DG) was infused, after which muscles were removed. For the exercise experiments, jugular vein catheters were surgically implanted. Five days later, mice received a bolus of [2-3H]DG and then remained sedentary (n = 6 TG and n = 8 NTG) or ran on a motorized treadmill (n = 12 TG and n = 8 NTG) for 30 min. TG and NTG had similar muscle [2-3H]DG 6-phosphate ([2-3H]DGP) accumulation in the basal state (P > 0.05). In the hyperinsulinemic experiments, TG required approximately 25% more glucose to maintain euglycemia (P < 0.05), and muscle [2-3H]DGP accumulation normalized to infusate [2-3H]DG was similarly increased (P < 0.05). In the exercise experiments, muscle [2-3H]DGP accumulation was significantly greater in TG than NTG (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we did not detect an effect of HK II overexpression on muscle [2-3H]DGP accumulation under basal conditions. Hyperinsulinemia and exercise shift the control of muscle glucose uptake so that phosphorylation is a more important determinant of the rate of this process.