Females, especially older women, historically have been excluded from coronary heart disease (CHD) studies. The PrimeTime program was a randomized clinical trial designed to study the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle management program (very low-fat vegetarian diet, smoking cessation, stress-management training, moderate exercise, and group support) on changes in behavioral risk factors among postmenopausal women with CHD. The study also explored program effects on four psychosocial clusters: coping with stress, distress, social support, and self-efficacy. The program produced significant behavioral improvements in 4- and 12-months adherence to diet, physical activity, and stress-management in the PrimeTime women compared to the Usual Care (UC) group. In addition, the PrimeTime participants demonstrated improvements relative to UC on psychosocial measures of self-efficacy, perceived social support, and ability to cope with stress. Strengths and weaknesses of the study, and implications for future research are discussed.