1. Previous study on the backcross hybrids derived from a cross of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/Mol) and the spontaneously diabetic BB/OK rat demonstrated the existence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting lipid phenotypes on chromosome 4 and suggestive linkage of lipid phenotypes with markers on chromosome 1. Because the previous study was performed with backcross hybrids at 12 weeks of age and it is known that lipid phenotypes can show age-related differences, in the present study, the effect of QTL (chromosome 1 and 4) on serum triglycerides and cholesterol was longitudinally analysed between 20 and 32 weeks of age in backcross hybrids. 2. The results of the present study show that the effect of QTL on chromosome 4 (between It-6 and D4Mit9) for serum triglycerides was maximal at 20 weeks of age, but disappeared at 32 weeks of age. In contrast, the effect of QTL on serum total cholesterol on chromosome 4 (Npy-Spr) was maximal at 32 weeks of age. In contrast with the first study (12 weeks), the longitudinal investigation showed significant linkage of DIMit14 marker with lipid phenotypes on chromosome 1. 3. The results of the present study indicate the necessity of considering the role of age in QTL analysis of lipid phenotypes.