Lipoprotein dynamics are complex during the postprandial state. A significant rise in chylomicron concentration is associated with increased competition for LPL with VLDL particles. This results in an increased concentration of large VLDL. The concentration of small VLDL is reduced as a result of diminished conversion of large to small VLDL. Such changes, induced in the postprandial state, complicate the application and development of models that describe lipoprotein particle kinetics. The development of models that integrate chylomicron and VLDL particle information, rather than surrogate markers, together with data including other variables will provide insight into the complexity of lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state.