Halitosis: causes, diagnosis, and treatment

N Z Dent J. 1998 Dec;94(418):156-60.


Halitosis is a major concern to the general public and the source of a multimillion-dollar industry world wide. Although the aetiology may be localised to the oral cavity in up to 90 percent of instances, halitosis may indicate a serious underlying medical condition necessitating medical referral. In general, halitosis of an oral cause can be safely and easily diagnosed and treated by the general dental practitioner.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Halitosis / diagnosis
  • Halitosis / etiology*
  • Halitosis / physiopathology
  • Halitosis / therapy
  • Humans