In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection in Taiwan, a seroepidemiological study was carried out in 19 townships. Serum samples were collected from 862 healthy residents, who were selected by stratified random sampling from various study areas. They were chosen from four different ethnic groups including aborigines, Fukien Taiwanese, Hakka Taiwanese, and mainland Chinese. Serum samples were screened for B19 IgG antibody by indirect antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and B19 IgM by IgM antibody capture (MAC)-ELISA, respectively. The overall prevalence of anti-B19 IgG and anti-B19 IgM was 32.8% and 0.35%, respectively. The anti-B19 seropositive rate in females was significantly higher than that of males (36.4% vs. 29.4%, P < .001). The age-sex-adjusted seropositive rate in urban townships (39.9%) was higher than that in aboriginal townships (30.5%, P < .001). The seropositive rate increased significantly with age showing a dose-response relationship (P=0.0001 based on a trend test). Blood transfusion was found to be associated with an increased seropositive rate showing a multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of 1.6.