Delirium in hospitalized older patients: recognition and risk factors

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1998 Fall;11(3):118-25; discussion 157-8. doi: 10.1177/089198879801100302.


Delirium, or acute confusional state, represents a common, serious, potentially preventable and increasing problem for older hospitalized patients. This study is intended to improve overall understanding of the problem of delirium and thus to lessen its adverse impact on the older population. The specific aims of this study are (1) to examine the epidemiology of delirium in older patients; (2) to evaluate barriers to recognition; (3) to present the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) simplified algorithm to improve recognition; (4) to elucidate predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium; and (5) to propose preventive strategies. Delirium occurs in 10-60% of the older hospitalized population and is unrecognized in 32-66% of cases. The CAM algorithm provides a sensitive (94-100%), specific (90-95%), reliable, and easy to use means for identification of delirium. Four predisposing and five precipitating factors were identified and validated to identify patients at high risk for development of delirium. Primary prevention of delirium should address important delirium risk factors and target patients at intermediate to high risk for delirium at admission.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Delirium / diagnosis*
  • Delirium / etiology
  • Delirium / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inpatients*
  • Nutrition Disorders / physiopathology
  • Polypharmacy
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Primary Prevention / methods*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Restraint, Physical / adverse effects
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Catheterization / adverse effects