The antinociceptive effects of morphine, desipramine, and serotonin and their combinations after intrathecal injection in the rat

Anesth Analg. 1999 Jan;88(1):141-5. doi: 10.1097/00000539-199901000-00026.


Antinociception can be produced at the spinal level by activation of opioidergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. We tested the antinociceptive effects of combined activation of all three systems. Antinociception was assessed in the rat tail-flick test, and drugs were administered via an intrathecal catheter. Morphine, the norepinephrine uptake inhibitor desipramine, and serotonin produced antinociception of their own. The combination of subthreshold doses of morphine 1 microg and of desipramine 3 microg produced pronounced antinociception that was antagonized by yohimbine. The combination of subthreshold morphine with serotonin 50 microg or desipramine with serotonin caused only small antinociceptive effects. When morphine combined with desipramine was decreased to a subthreshold dose, we observed pronounced antinociception when a subthreshold dose of serotonin was added. A complex interaction can be supposed by results obtained with antagonists. The activation of all three neurotransmitter systems with small doses of agonists may represent an effective principle for pain control at the spinal level.

Implications: Pain sensations are modulated at the spinal level by opioids, noradrenergic drugs, and serotonin. Using a rat model, we showed that the concurrent use of drugs from each of these classes produces good pain control at doses that should avoid the side effects associated with larger doses of each individual drug.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Desipramine / pharmacology*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*
  • Injections, Spinal
  • Male
  • Morphine / pharmacology*
  • Nociceptors / drug effects*
  • Pain Measurement / drug effects
  • Pain Threshold / drug effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Serotonin / pharmacology*


  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Serotonin
  • Morphine
  • Desipramine