Progress in radiology: historical review of the changing concepts of lower esophageal anatomy: 430 B.C.--1977

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1978 Sep;131(3):373-8. doi: 10.2214/ajr.131.3.373.


Some of the classic studies on the anatomy of the lower esophagus are reviewed. In every case, the original sources have been consulted. The basis for a proposed anatomic description of the lower esophagus is established on the basis of the most modern research. The genesis of ideas on the anatomic nature of the cardia, phrenoesophageal membrane, esophageal pouches, esophageal sphincters, esophageal rings, gastroesophageal angle, flap valve, and cardiac notch is traced.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Anatomy / history*
  • Cardia / anatomy & histology
  • Esophagogastric Junction / anatomy & histology
  • Esophagus / anatomy & histology*
  • Europe
  • History, 15th Century
  • History, 16th Century
  • History, 17th Century
  • History, 18th Century
  • History, 19th Century
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, Ancient
  • History, Medieval
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Membranes / anatomy & histology
  • Middle Aged
  • Mucous Membrane / anatomy & histology
  • Terminology as Topic
  • United States