Most cases of the VACTERL "association" [Martinez-Frias et al., Am. J. Med. Genet. 76: 291-296, 1998] are sporadic, with an empiric recurrence risk of 1% or less. Rare families with recurrence of VACTERL-H association are described with patterns consistent with single gene inheritance. Also described are occasional single anomalies of the VACTERL association in sibs or parents of affected individuals. We describe a mother and son with typical VACTERL anomalies. The patient was born by cesarean section to a 27-year-old G1 mother following an uncomplicated pregnancy. He was found to have an asymmetric crying face, preaxial polydactyly on the right, a small midmuscular ventricular septal defect with an incomplete right bundle branch block on echocardiogram, a small cleft in T3, and incomplete development of the left half of the sacrum. The kidneys were normal ultrasonographically. The patient's mother was born with an H-type tracheo-esophageal fistula, imperforate anus, rectovaginal fistula, a triphalangeal thumb, hypoplastic left kidney, and vertebral anomalies. There were no other individuals with VACTERL anomalies in the family. No families with VACTERL association in the offspring of an affected individual have been reported previously.