Hyperglycemia is an adverse effect that occurs with all protease inhibitors, although few cases have been reported in the literature. Most patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving antiretroviral therapy are also taking at least one protease inhibitor. Patients with a family history of diabetes mellitus may be at a greater risk of developing this adverse effect. It is therefore prudent to monitor all patients starting protease inhibitor therapy for the onset of diabetes or hyperglycemia, particularly those with a family history of diabetes. Baseline fasting plasma glucose or serum glucose level should be measured with follow-up measurements every 3 months for approximately 6-12 months.