Neuropsychologic impact of facial deformities in children. Neurodevelopmental role of the face in communication and bonding

Clin Plast Surg. 1998 Oct;25(4):587-97, ix.


The face is the primary tool of human communication. In early childhood, the face plays a crucial role in bonding and attachment. Severe craniofacial problems may alter bonding and attachment, thereby resulting in future risk for emotional, behavioral, and social problems. Clinical and research findings, while incomplete, suggest that this is the case. This conceptual understanding of the key role of face-to-face communication in early childhood provides a compelling rationale for early repair of craniofacial deformations.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Beauty
  • Child
  • Child Behavior
  • Child Development*
  • Communication*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / physiopathology
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / psychology*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / surgery
  • Emotions
  • Face*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Interpersonal Relations*
  • Mother-Child Relations
  • Neuropsychology
  • Object Attachment*
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / psychology
  • Social Behavior
  • Socialization