An epidemiologic study to determine lipids and biochemical traits was performed in central Taiwan aborigines with and without gout and in the local Han Chinese. The lipid profile included measurement of serum triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apoB. The results showed no significant difference for body mass index (BMI) and cholesterol between the three groups. Greater alcohol consumption was found in aborigines with gout compared with the other two groups. With univariate analysis, serum triglyceride, uric acid, creatinine, LDL-C, and apoB were significantly higher in aborigines with gout versus aborigines without gout or Han people (P<.001). By contrast, HDL-C and apoA-I were significantly lower in aborigines with gout (P<.001 or .01). However, with multivariate analysis, only serum triglyceride, uric acid, and apoB-1 were significantly different between aborigines with versus without gout. In conclusion, the apparent lipid abnormalities, particularly triglyceride and apoB, in Taiwan aborigines with gout are unlikely secondary to obesity. Instead, excessive alcohol intake or genetic factors may play a role in inducing hyperlipidemia in gout.