Background & aims: There have been conflicting reports regarding acid secretion after treatment with omeprazole. This study examined acid secretion after treatment with omeprazole and its relation to Helicobacter pylori status and on-treatment gastric function.
Methods: Twelve H. pylori-negative and 9 H. pylori-positive subjects were examined before, on, and at day 15 after an 8-week course of 40 mg/day omeprazole. On each occasion, plasma gastrin, intragastric pH, and acid output were measured basally and in response to increasing doses of gastrin 17.
Results: In the H. pylori-negative subjects at day 15 after omeprazole treatment, basal acid output was 82% higher (P < 0.007) and maximal acid output 28% higher (P < 0.003) than before omeprazole. The degree of increase in maximal acid output was related to both on-treatment pH and on-treatment fasting gastrin levels, being 48.0% in subjects with an on-treatment pH of >4 vs. 21. 0% in those with a pH of <4 (P < 0.02) and 49.2% in subjects with an on-treatment gastrin of >25 ng. L-1 vs. 19.8% in those with a fasting gastrin of <25 ng. L-1 (P < 0.006). At day 15 after omeprazole treatment, the H. pylori-positive subjects showed a heterogeneous response with some having increased acid output and others persisting suppression.
Conclusions: Rebound acid hypersecretion occurs in H. pylori-negative subjects after omeprazole treatment. Its severity is related to the degree of elevation of pH on treatment. Persisting suppression of acid secretion masks the phenomenon in H. pylori-positive subjects.