This study was undertaken to develop an immunodiagnostic test of active human schistosomiasis mansoni using a monoclonal antibody which targets urinary schistosomal antigen. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against the processed urine of Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients showed very high and significant reactivity with ES product of ova compared with other different S. mansoni antigens. The monoclonal antibody (4.23) was reactive with repetitive epitopes of S. mansoni soluble egg antigen and ES product of ova with molecular mass range of 65-23 kDa and 80-23 kDa, respectively. It recognised different stages of the parasite life-cycle, with no cross reaction with Fasciola or hydatid antigen. MAbs were characterised by isotyping, immunoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot technique, ELISA, and their recognition of carbohydrate or protein antigenic epitopes by periodate oxidation and trichloroacetic acid treatment of the antigen. It was used for detection of circulating schistosomal antigen in an antigen capture antibody sandwich ELISA on sera and urines of 58 S. mansoni-infected patients, 17 S. haematobium-infected patients, 15 parasite-free negative healthy controls and sera from 13 schistosomiasis-free patients harbouring Fasciola or hydatid infections. The percentage sensitivity of the assay in the serum of S. mansoni-infected patients was 98.4% and in urine 94.8%. A positive correlation was found between the number of faecal S. mansoni eggs and the circulating antigen, both in serum and in urine. Antigen circulating in urine correlated with that in the sera of S. mansoni patients. These data provide a sensitive and non-invasive method almost comparable with the use of sera for immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis and an indirect way to reflect the intensity of infection.