The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in insulin resistance has been studied in 59 patients with Type 2 diabetes, 28 with android type obesity and 35 healthy lean controls. Immunoreactive concentrations and bioactivity of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha have repeatedly been determined in 8 weeks intervals for 12 months, five times per patients, by using ELISA and L929 cell cytotoxicity bioassay. Significantly higher immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations and bioactivity have been found in both, the Type 2 diabetic and obese groups as compared to the healthy persons. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations and bioactivity have showed a significant positive linear correlation with the elevated basal serum C-peptide levels and body mass indexes in both groups of patients. According to these data the cytokine might play a role in insulin resistance in obesity as well in Type 2 diabetes.