Med Clin North Am. 1999 Jan;83(1):115-23, ix. doi: 10.1016/s0025-7125(05)70091-2.


The voice is the primary means of communication for humans socially and in the workplace. Although rarely life-threatening, voice problems cause tremendous alteration in daily living and should not be underestimated as a medical disorder. Besides affecting useful communication, voice problems may also signify the presence of more serious medical illnesses, such as malignancy or airway compromise. This article describes normal vocal anatomy and physiology and outlines a practical approach in evaluating patients with voice disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Acute Disease
  • Airway Obstruction / complications
  • Chronic Disease
  • Communication
  • Hoarseness / diagnosis*
  • Hoarseness / etiology
  • Hoarseness / therapy
  • Humans
  • Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications
  • Vocal Cords / anatomy & histology
  • Vocal Cords / physiology
  • Voice / physiology
  • Voice Disorders / diagnosis
  • Voice Disorders / etiology
  • Voice Disorders / therapy