Incidence and demographic correlates of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in an inner London population

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Dec;19(4):202-9. doi: 10.3109/01674829809025698.


This paper reviews the literature on antenatal depression and reports on a recent survey of depressive symptoms among 407 women attending an inner London antenatal clinic. The high level of depressive symptoms in this survey was in line with that recently reported from a deprived inner-city population in the United States. Depressive symptoms were associated with having no educational qualifications, being unmarried, the woman being unemployed, having poor support from a partner if present, and being in second or subsequent pregnancy. Doctors should be aware that women are not especially protected from symptoms of depression during pregnancy. The association with socioeconomic problems suggests that this is one aspect of morbidity among disadvantaged people. There is a need for more research on the causes of depression during pregnancy and on evaluation of medical treatment and social intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Depression / etiology*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • London
  • Marital Status
  • Middle Aged
  • Poverty Areas
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / etiology*
  • Pregnancy Complications / psychology
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Support
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Unemployment / psychology