We analyzed the cost of prostheses for patients amputated because of vascular disease. During 1 year, 112 patients were treated with a primary unilateral transtibial amputation in Malmöhus county, Sweden, which has 527,000 inhabitants. During the first 6 months after the amputation, 50% (56/112) of the patients had received a prosthesis. At 6 months, 49 patients (7 had died) were examined, 18 had poor and 31 had good prosthetic function. Within 1 year, 71 (63%) patients had been fitted with a prosthesis. During 8 years after the amputation, they received altogether 137 prostheses and 54 exchange sockets; 59% of the prostheses and 26% of the sockets were delivered during the first year. Each patient received a median of 1 prosthesis and 1 extra socket. During the 8-year period, the total cost of prostheses, sockets and maintenance for the 71 patients was USD 228,746, representing a median cost of USD 1,582 per patient. The total cost of maintenance of the prostheses during the same period was USD 37,959, representing 20% of the total cost of all the prostheses and sockets. There was no statistically significant difference in the costs between patients with good or poor function.