A model-based algorithm for blood glucose control in type I diabetic patients

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1999 Feb;46(2):148-57. doi: 10.1109/10.740877.


A model-based predictive control algorithm is developed to maintain normoglycemia in the Type I diabetic patient using a closed-loop insulin infusion pump. Utilizing compartmental modeling techniques, a fundamental model of the diabetic patient is constructed. The resulting nineteenth-order nonlinear pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic representation is used in controller synthesis. Linear identification of an input-output model from noisy patient data is performed by filtering the impulse-response coefficients via projection onto the Laguerre basis. A linear model predictive controller is developed using the identified step response model. Controller performance for unmeasured disturbance rejection (50 g oral glucose tolerance test) is examined. Glucose setpoint tracking performance is improved by designing a second controller which substitutes a more detailed internal model including state-estimation and a Kalman filter for the input-output representation. The state-estimating controller maintains glucose within 15 mg/dl of the setpoint in the presence of measurement noise. Under noise-free conditions, the model-based predictive controller using state estimation outperforms an internal model controller from literature (49.4% reduction in undershoot and 45.7% reduction in settling time). These results demonstrate the potential use of predictive algorithms for blood glucose control in an insulin infusion pump.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Linear Models
  • Models, Biological*
  • Nonlinear Dynamics
  • Normal Distribution
  • Prognosis


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin