Nitric oxide in neurodegeneration

Prog Brain Res. 1998;118:215-29. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6123(08)63210-0.

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique biological messenger molecule which mediates diverse physiologic roles. NO mediates blood vessel relaxation by endothelium, immune activity of macrophages and neurotransmission of central and peripheral neurons. NO is produced from three NO Synthase (NOS) isoforms: Neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS, and inducible NOS (iNOS). In the central nervous system, NO may play important roles in neurotransmitter release, neurotransmitter reuptake, neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and regulation of gene expression. However, excessive production of NO following a pathologic insult can lead to neurotoxicity. NO plays a role in mediating neurotoxicity associated with a variety of neurologic disorders, including stroke, Parkinson's Disease, and HIV dementia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism*
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Nitrates / toxicity
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide / physiology*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / physiology
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • Parkinson Disease / metabolism

Substances

  • Nitrates
  • peroxynitric acid
  • Nitric Oxide
  • NOS1 protein, human
  • NOS2 protein, human
  • NOS3 protein, human
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III