Identification of transactivator and nuclear localization domains in the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase accessory protein, BMRF1

J Gen Virol. 1999 Jan;80 ( Pt 1):69-74. doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-80-1-69.


The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BMRF1 gene product is an essential component of the viral DNA polymerase and is absolutely required for lytic virus replication. In addition to its polymerase accessory protein function, we recently demonstrated that BMRF1 is a transactivator, inducing expression of the essential oriLyt promoter, BHLF1. However, the regions of BMRF1 required for transactivation of BHLF1 are unknown. Here we demonstrate that the carboxy-terminal portion of the BMRF1 protein (amino acids 378404), although not required for DNA binding or polymerase processivity function, is required for transactivator function as well as nuclear localization. Site-directed mutagenesis of this region allowed us to separate the transactivator and nuclear localization motifs of BMRF1. The two DNA-binding domains of BMRF1 are also required for efficient transactivation of the BHLF1 promoter.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics*
  • Antigens, Viral / metabolism
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / chemistry
  • HeLa Cells
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / enzymology
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis
  • Nuclear Localization Signals*
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Trans-Activators / genetics*
  • Viral Proteins / genetics*


  • Antigens, Viral
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse component
  • Nuclear Localization Signals
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Viral Proteins
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase