The Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, phenotypically characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyposis, is an autosomal dominant disease with variable expression and incomplete penetrance. Moreover, affected patients are at increased risk for gastrointestinal and other malignancies. Recently, a mutated gene encoding abnormal forms of the novel serine threonine kinase STK11 has been identified as a genetic cause of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Here, we report the molecular analysis of the STK11 gene in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which in exon 1 revealed a guanine (G) insertion in the 5 G repeat of codons 51-53. The insertion leads to a frameshift with a premature TGA stop codon 324 bp downstream in codon 162, predicting the expression of a truncated protein without kinase activity. This heterozygous germline mutation was also found in the affected father and in one affected sister of the index patient, but not in any phenotypically unaffected family member or in unrelated control subjects. In DNA isolated from microdissected hamartomatous polyps of the index patient, exon 1 of the STK11 gene could not be amplified suggesting that both alleles of STK11 exon 1 were lost in the hamartomatous polyps. Identification of a STK11 gene mutation in an index patient offers the possibility of a predictive diagnosis, and initiation of specific screening programs in the genetically affected kindred.