This report reviews studies addressing the new concepts in liver regeneration after a partial hepatectomy (PHx). The review begins with an overview of the immunologic mechanisms of liver regeneration after PHx, especially regarding Kupffer cells and extrathymic T cells of the regenerative liver in the cell-mediated immunity, based on major histocompatibility complex I and II antigens. Attention is then devoted to "on and off" studies in liver regeneration after PHx, by hypothesizing the shear stress based on the fact that the portal flow against hepatocytes or sinusoidal endothelial cells triggers their regeneration after a partial hepatectomy and controls the volume of the regenerating liver by the stimulating the cell surface modulator (CSM) of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). We propose that the acute elevation of shear stress after PHx influences the adhesion between SEC and intrahepatic leukocytes. These concepts are expected to positively contribute to the future research on liver regeneration after PHx.