Thirty-nine tumor-bearing patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with 3 subcutaneous injections of the MAGE-3.A1 peptide at monthly intervals. No significant toxicity was observed. Of the 25 patients who received the complete treatment, 7 displayed significant tumor regressions. All but one of these regressions involved cutaneous metastases. Three regressions were complete and 2 of these led to a disease-free state, which persisted for more than 2 years after the beginning of treatment. No evidence for a cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) response was found in the blood of the 4 patients who were analyzed, including 2 who displayed complete tumor regression. Our results suggest that injection of the MAGE-3.A1 peptide induced tumor regression in a significant number of the patients, even though no massive CTL response was produced.