The Effects of Large Volume Intravenous Fluid Infusion on Neonatal Renal Function

J Pediatr. 1976 Dec;89(6):968-72. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(76)80612-9.

Abstract

Twenty healthy infants weighing less than 2,000 gm were studied at low (3.6 ml/kg/hr) or high (10.3 ml/kg/hr) rates of intravenous infusion. Inulin clearance determined by the constant infusion method was greater at the high rate of infusion (p = less than 0.05). Inulin clearance in two groups of infants over 2,000 gm studies at the same low or high rates of infusion did not increase at the higher rate of infusion. Since the GFR in infants less than 2,000 gm depends partially on the rate of intravenous infusion, small, healthy preterm infants may benefit from a rate of fluid administration greater than the low rate. When studies at low and high rates of infusion were compared in the 20 infants less than 2,000 gm, the fractional urinary sodium excretion increased with the increased fluid load. Delivery of fluid from the proximal tubule (CH2O =Na per dl GFR) increased (p less than 0.005). Free-water clearance and the absolute volume of urine increased at the high rate of infusion. These data indicate that the healthy preterm infant less than 2,000 gm, like the adult, compensates by increasing free-water clearance and urine volume when challenged with a large fluid load. Although fluid changes of short duration are appropriately handled, the effect of continuous rapid infusion on water and sodium balance in infants of this size remains to be determined.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Body Fluids / physiology
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infusions, Parenteral / methods*
  • Inulin
  • Kidney Function Tests*
  • Sodium / urine
  • Water Loss, Insensible

Substances

  • Inulin
  • Sodium