A method is described for the preparation of outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the outer membrane proteins characterized. Isolated outer and cytoplasmic membranes differed markedly in the content of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (lipopolysaccharide) and phospholipid as well as in the localization of certain enzymes (NADH oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, D-lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and phospholipase), and also in the microscopic morphology. The outer membrane preparation showed activity neutralizing a certain bacteriocin or bacteriophages, whereas the cytoplasmic membrane preparation showed no neutralizing activity. The protein composition of membrane preparations from five different strains of P. aeruginosa [P14, M92 (PAO1), PAC1, P15, and M2008 (PAT)] were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 50 protein bands were detected in the cytoplasmic membrane preparation. The protein compositions of outer membranes from the five different strains were very similar: at least 6 major bands were found (apparent molecular weights: Band D, 50,000; band E, 45,000; band F, 33,000; bands G and H, 21,000; and band I, 8,000). The protein composition of outer membranes was affected by some physiological growth conditions. Some features of major outer membrane proteins were also studied. Band F showed anomalous migration on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis depending on the solubilizing conditions or pretreatment with TCA. Band I seemed to be a protein analogous to the lipoprotein which had been found in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.