Impact of residential nitrogen dioxide exposure on personal exposure: an international study

J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1998 Jun;48(6):553-60. doi: 10.1080/10473289.1998.10463704.


Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured during two-day winter periods in indoor and outdoor environments, and these concentrations were compared with simultaneously measured personal exposures in 18 cities in 15 countries around the world. Information was also gathered on activity patterns and household characteristics in order to determine the influences of these factors on personal exposures. All NO2 measurements were taken using passive filter badges. Personal exposures were found to vary greatly among the array of cities, with mean concentrations ranging between 11.0 ppb and 51.5 ppb. Personal NO2 exposures were more strongly correlated with indoor concentrations (r = 0.75) than with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.57) when all countries were considered simultaneously. Use of a gas stove in the home was the dominant activity influencing NO2 concentrations, with a 67% increase in mean personal NO2 exposure and an increase in indoor-outdoor ratios from 0.7 to 1.2 for participants using gas stoves, although preliminary evidence indicates the importance of combustion space heaters as well. These associations indicate the global nature of the correlation between personal NO2 exposures and indoor NO2 sources such as gas stoves or space heaters, demonstrating that this relationship is not dependent on country-specific parameters.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis
  • Humans
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / adverse effects*
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / analysis
  • Oxidants, Photochemical / adverse effects*
  • Oxidants, Photochemical / analysis
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Risk Factors


  • Oxidants, Photochemical
  • Nitrogen Dioxide