A 56-kDa protein is a novel granule-bound starch synthase existing in the pericarps, aleurone layers, and embryos of immature seed in diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.)

Planta. 1998 Dec;207(1):125-32. doi: 10.1007/s004250050464.


A novel 56-kDa granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS; NDPglucose-starch glucosyltransferase, EC responsible for amylose synthesis was found in the pericarps, aleurone layers and embryos of immature diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). The GBSS and other proteins bound to starch granules of various tissues of immature normal and waxy diploid wheat seeds were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and their activities were examined. In the waxy mutant, the waxy protein (59.5 kDa, GBSSI) was absent, but amylose and GBSS activity were evident in all tissues except the endosperm. Of the proteins bound to starch granules, only the 56-kDa protein was associated with the presence of amylose and GBSS activities in the pericarps, aleurone layers and embryos. Mutations at the waxy locus did not affect the 56-kDa protein in these tissues. Changes in the amount of 56-kDa protein during the course of seed development, and the distribution of the 56-kDa protein in each tissue of immature seeds were quite different from those of the waxy protein. On the other hand, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 56-kDa protein had a 40-50% similarity to GBSSI of some other plant species and was antigenically related to the waxy protein. These results strongly suggest that the 56-kDa protein in diploid wheat is a GBSSI class enzyme and, hence, an isoform of the waxy protein. The waxy protein and 56-kDa protein, however, are expressed in different seed tissues and at different stages of seed development.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amylose / metabolism
  • Blotting, Western
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plant Proteins / immunology
  • Seeds / enzymology
  • Seeds / growth & development
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  • Starch / metabolism
  • Starch Synthase / chemistry
  • Starch Synthase / classification
  • Starch Synthase / genetics
  • Starch Synthase / immunology
  • Starch Synthase / metabolism*
  • Triticum / enzymology*
  • Triticum / growth & development


  • Plant Proteins
  • waxy protein, plant
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
  • Starch
  • Amylose
  • Starch Synthase