Exploring self-efficacy as a predictor of disease management

Health Educ Behav. 1999 Feb;26(1):72-89. doi: 10.1177/109019819902600107.


Self-efficacy is posited in social cognitive theory as fundamental to behavior change. Few health behavior studies have examined self-efficacy prospectively, viewed it as part of a reciprocal behavioral process, or compared self-efficacy beliefs in the same population across different behaviors. This article first discusses self-efficacy in its theoretical context and reviews the available prospective studies. Second, it explores self-efficacy as a predictor of disease management behaviors in 570 older women with heart disease. Although the R2 statistics in each case were modest, the construct is shown to be a statistically significant (p<.05) predictor at both 4 and 12 months postbaseline of several disease management behaviors: using medicine as prescribed, getting adequate exercise, managing stress, and following a recommended diet. Building self-efficacy is likely a reasonable starting point for interventions aiming to enhance heart disease management behaviors of mature female patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease
  • Disease Management*
  • Female
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Heart Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Heart Diseases / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Psychological
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Self Care / psychology*
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Women / psychology*