Visual observations were made on restraint use in occupants of 5,050 automobiles containing at least one passenger less than 10 years of age, and short interviews were conducted with the drivers. Ninety-three percent of passengers less than 10 years old were not restained. Eighty-nine percent of passengers 10 or older and 78% of the drivers were not restained. Sixteen percent of child motor vehicle restraint devices observed were not used, and 73% of those in use were not used correctly. Use of such devices declined sharply after age 1. Although child passengers were more likely to be restained if the driver was restrained, more than 75% of the children were not restrained when the driver was, even if the driver was the child's parent.