During the period from January 1, 1945, through December 31, 1975, 446 patients with Stage I infiltrative carcinoma of the cervix (exclusive of microinvasion) were evaluated at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Four different study groups with treatment comparisons between radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection and full-course radiation therapy are analyzed. The over-all uncorrected five-year survival rate when each form of therapy is evaluated approximates 85 per cent; the corrected five-year survival rate is approximately 90 per cent. When the regional lymph nodes were negative, the five-year survival rate was 96 per cent; when they were positive, the five-year survival rate was 55 per cent. Pathologic variations are evaluated, and basic vital statistics are reported. Thirteen per cent of the patients developed a recurrence within five years, 70 per cent occurring within the first three years. The therapeutic morbidity experienced in both groups of patients is essentially comparable, and the advantages of each form of therapy are presented.