The type III secretion determinants of the flagellar anti-transcription factor, FlgM, extend from the amino-terminus into the anti-sigma28 domain

Mol Microbiol. 1998 Dec;30(5):1029-40. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.01131.x.


The flagellar-specific anti-sigma factor, FIgM, inhibits the expression of late flagellar genes until the hook-basal body structure is assembled and competent for export of the flagellins and hook-associated proteins (flagellar late proteins). FIgM monitors this assembly checkpoint by being a substrate for export via the hook-basal body structure, which includes a type III protein secretion complex. Amino acid sequence alignment of late-secreted flagellar proteins identified a region of homology present in the amino-terminus of FIgM and the other late flagellar proteins, but not in flagellar proteins secreted earlier during flagellar biosynthesis. Single amino acid substitutions at specific positions within this motif decreased the export of FIgM. Deletion of this region (S3-P11) resulted in lower intracellular FIgM levels, but did not prevent recognition and export by the flagellar-specific secretion system. Mutations were isolated in a second region of FIgM spanning residues K27 to A65 that exhibited increased anti-sigma28 activity. These FIgM 'hyperinhibitor' mutants were secreted less than wild-type FIgM. Mutations that interfere with the secretion of FIgM without abolishing anti-sigma28 activity have a negative effect upon the secretion of a His-tagged FIgM mutant that lacks anti-sigma28 activity. Models are proposed to explain the dominant negative phenotype of the FIgM secretion mutants reported in this study.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alanine / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Biological Transport
  • Flagella / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Sigma Factor / genetics*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • FliA protein, Bacteria
  • Sigma Factor
  • FlgM protein, Bacteria
  • Alanine