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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1956 1
1958 1
1966 1
1971 1
2000 3
2001 2
2002 18
2003 21
2004 29
2005 31
2006 57
2007 99
2008 135
2009 177
2010 216
2011 232
2012 246
2013 272
2014 276
2015 307
2016 302
2017 314
2018 293
2019 306
2020 216
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3,142 results
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The role of IL-21 in immunity and cancer.
Davis MR, Zhu Z, Hansen DM, Bai Q, Fang Y. Davis MR, et al. Cancer Lett. 2015 Mar 28;358(2):107-114. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.12.047. Epub 2015 Jan 6. Cancer Lett. 2015. PMID: 25575696 Review.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), produced predominantly by CD4+ T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells, is a newly discovered member of the common γ-chain family of cytokines. ...In recent years, the role for IL-21 in the pathogenesis of cancer
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), produced predominantly by CD4+ T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells, is a newly disc
IL-21 and T Cell Differentiation: Consider the Context.
Tian Y, Zajac AJ. Tian Y, et al. Trends Immunol. 2016 Aug;37(8):557-568. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2016.06.001. Epub 2016 Jul 4. Trends Immunol. 2016. PMID: 27389961 Free PMC article. Review.
Intriguingly, the effects of IL-21 on T cells can be complex and vary depending on the experimental system used. We review our current understanding of the roles of IL-21 in the generation of phenotypically distinct CD4 and CD8 T cell populations and d …
Intriguingly, the effects of IL-21 on T cells can be complex and vary depending on the experimental system used. We review our …
Clinical significance and immunobiology of IL-21 in autoimmunity.
Long D, Chen Y, Wu H, Zhao M, Lu Q. Long D, et al. J Autoimmun. 2019 May;99:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2019.01.013. Epub 2019 Feb 14. J Autoimmun. 2019. PMID: 30773373 Review.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), an autocrine cytokine predominantly produced by follicular helper T (Tfh) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, has been proven to play an important role in the immune system, for example, by promoting proliferation and the development
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), an autocrine cytokine predominantly produced by follicular helper T (Tfh) and T helper 1
IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22 Cytokines of T Helper 17 Cells in Cancer.
Nalbant A. Nalbant A. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2019 Jan;39(1):56-60. doi: 10.1089/jir.2018.0057. Epub 2018 Dec 18. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2019. PMID: 30562123 Review.
Besides IL-17 family cytokines, Th17 cells produce IL-22, IL-21, and IL-26. The dysregulated function of Th17 cells and their cytokines could contribute to pathology of diseases, including cancer. The role of cytokines of Th17 cells such as I
Besides IL-17 family cytokines, Th17 cells produce IL-22, IL-21, and IL-26. The dysregulated function of …
IL-21 and IL-21-producing T cells are involved in multiple sclerosis severity and progression.
Gharibi T, Hosseini A, Marofi F, Oraei M, Jahandideh S, Abdollahpour-Alitappeh M, Hashemi V, Motallebnezhad M, Babaloo Z, Baradaran B. Gharibi T, et al. Immunol Lett. 2019 Dec;216:12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2019.09.003. Epub 2019 Sep 20. Immunol Lett. 2019. PMID: 31545959 Clinical Trial.
Moreover, we found a strong positive correlation between IL-21 mRNA levels and EDSS scores (r = 0.637, P < 0.0001), IL-21 mRNA levels and Progression Index (r = 0.540, P < 0.0001), IL-21 serum levels and EDSS scores (r = 0.617, P &l …
Moreover, we found a strong positive correlation between IL-21 mRNA levels and EDSS scores (r = 0.637, P < 0.0001), IL
Interleukin 21 (IL-21)/microRNA-29 (miR-29) axis is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.
Ortega PAS, Saulle I, Mercurio V, Ibba SV, Lori EM, Fenizia C, Masetti M, Trabattoni D, Caputo SL, Vichi F, Mazzotta F, Clerici M, Biasin M. Ortega PAS, et al. AIDS. 2018 Nov 13;32(17):2453-2461. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001938. AIDS. 2018. PMID: 30005016 Free article.
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-21 (IL-21) modulates HIV-1 infection through the elicitation of different antiviral mechanisms, including Th17 lineage commitment and induction of microRNA (miR)-29, a miRNA endowed with anti-HIV activity. ...Approaches that exo …
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-21 (IL-21) modulates HIV-1 infection through the elicitation of different antiviral mech …
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) regulates chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in murine heart allograft rejection.
Khattar M, Baum CE, Schroder P, Breidenbach JD, Haller ST, Chen W, Stepkowski S. Khattar M, et al. PLoS One. 2019 Nov 22;14(11):e0225624. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225624. eCollection 2019. PLoS One. 2019. PMID: 31756235 Free PMC article.
However, the therapeutic potential of inhibiting the IL-21-BATF signaling axis, particularly in transplant rejection, remains unclear. ...Thus, we demonstrate that CAV is regulated at least in part by IL-21 signaling and its blockade by genetic approac …
However, the therapeutic potential of inhibiting the IL-21-BATF signaling axis, particularly in transplant rejection, remains …
Interleukin (IL)-21 in Inflammation and Immunity During Parasitic Diseases.
Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Eckmann L, Singer SM. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, et al. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019 Dec 4;9:401. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00401. eCollection 2019. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019. PMID: 31867283 Free PMC article. Review.
IL-21 and its cognate receptor, IL-21R, are highly expressed in parasitized organs of infected humans as well in murine models of the human parasitic diseases. ...Mice deficient for either IL-21 (Il21 (-/-)) or IL-21R (Il21r (-/-)) showed
IL-21 and its cognate receptor, IL-21R, are highly expressed in parasitized organs of infected humans as well in murine
IL-21-mediated expansion of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells is limited by the Tim-3 pathway.
Wu K, Zhao H, Xiu Y, Li Z, Zhao J, Xie S, Zeng H, Zhang H, Yu L, Xu B. Wu K, et al. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Apr;69:136-142. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.01.027. Epub 2019 Jan 29. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019. PMID: 30708194
However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, the efficacy of IL-21 was significantly reduced. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from AML patients exhibited lower expression of IL-21R, and required higher levels of IL-21 for expansion. ...IL-21
However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, the efficacy of IL-21 was significantly reduced. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from AML pa …
IL-21 promotes allergic airway inflammation by driving apoptosis of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells.
Tortola L, Pawelski H, Sonar SS, Ampenberger F, Kurrer M, Kopf M. Tortola L, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 Jun;143(6):2178-2189.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.11.047. Epub 2019 Jan 14. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019. PMID: 30654048
BACKGROUND: IL-21 is a key player of adaptive immunity, with well-established roles in B-cell and cytotoxic T-cell responses. ...METHODS: We used IL-21 receptor-deficient mice to study the effect of IL-21 on T-cell responses in models of …
BACKGROUND: IL-21 is a key player of adaptive immunity, with well-established roles in B-cell and cytotoxic T-cell responses. …
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