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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1926 1
1953 1
1967 1
1974 1
1975 1
1976 1
1977 4
1978 4
1979 1
1980 1
1981 2
1983 3
1984 4
1985 4
1986 2
1987 19
1988 21
1989 20
1990 22
1991 34
1992 25
1993 37
1994 32
1995 37
1996 38
1997 31
1998 38
1999 52
2000 59
2001 52
2002 82
2003 71
2004 112
2005 99
2006 108
2007 88
2008 116
2009 104
2010 134
2011 131
2012 124
2013 158
2014 190
2015 220
2016 210
2017 229
2018 210
2019 221
2020 229
2021 11
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3,065 results
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Page 1
The Hygiene Hypothesis in the Age of the Microbiome.
Ege MJ. Ege MJ. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Nov;14(Supplement_5):S348-S353. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201702-139AW. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017. PMID: 29161087 Review.
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. ...Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" pre …
Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?
van Tilburg Bernardes E, Arrieta MC. van Tilburg Bernardes E, et al. Arch Med Res. 2017 Nov;48(8):717-726. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2017.11.009. Epub 2017 Dec 7. Arch Med Res. 2017. PMID: 29224909 Review.
This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders. Although the hygiene h
This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal micro …
The hygiene hypothesis in autoimmunity: the role of pathogens and commensals.
Bach JF. Bach JF. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 Feb;18(2):105-120. doi: 10.1038/nri.2017.111. Epub 2017 Oct 16. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018. PMID: 29034905 Review.
Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and alle …
Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, w …
The hygiene hypothesis at a glance: Early exposures, immune mechanism and novel therapies.
Alexandre-Silva GM, Brito-Souza PA, Oliveira ACS, Cerni FA, Zottich U, Pucca MB. Alexandre-Silva GM, et al. Acta Trop. 2018 Dec;188:16-26. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.08.032. Epub 2018 Aug 27. Acta Trop. 2018. PMID: 30165069 Review.
The hygiene hypothesis was proposed almost three decades ago. Nevertheless, its mechanism still remains with relevant controversies. ...We also strongly encourage that researchers do not consider the hygiene hypothesis as a theory based strictly on …
The hygiene hypothesis was proposed almost three decades ago. Nevertheless, its mechanism still remains with relevant controve …
Multiple sclerosis, the microbiome, TLR2, and the hygiene hypothesis.
Wasko NJ, Nichols F, Clark RB. Wasko NJ, et al. Autoimmun Rev. 2020 Jan;19(1):102430. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2019.102430. Epub 2019 Nov 15. Autoimmun Rev. 2020. PMID: 31734400 Free article. Review.
Studies of monozygotic twins suggest a significant role for environmental factors in susceptibility to MS. Numerous studies, driven by the "Hygiene Hypothesis," have focused on the role of environmental factors in allergic and autoimmune diseases. ...In this review, …
Studies of monozygotic twins suggest a significant role for environmental factors in susceptibility to MS. Numerous studies, driven by the " …
The immunology of the allergy epidemic and the hygiene hypothesis.
Lambrecht BN, Hammad H. Lambrecht BN, et al. Nat Immunol. 2017 Sep 19;18(10):1076-1083. doi: 10.1038/ni.3829. Nat Immunol. 2017. PMID: 28926539 Review.
The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory pathways as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle and the disappearance of chronic infectious diseases. ...
The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory …
Hygiene Hypothesis: Is the Evidence the Same All Over the World?
Leong RW, Mitrev N, Ko Y. Leong RW, et al. Dig Dis. 2016;34(1-2):35-42. doi: 10.1159/000442922. Epub 2016 Mar 16. Dig Dis. 2016. PMID: 26982573 Review.
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis refers to where modern living conditions are responsible for the increasing incidences of immune-related diseases including the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). ...KEY MESSAGES: The rising incidence of IBD is well …
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis refers to where modern living conditions are responsible for the increasing incidences of i …
Alzheimer's disease and gut microbiota.
Hu X, Wang T, Jin F. Hu X, et al. Sci China Life Sci. 2016 Oct;59(10):1006-1023. doi: 10.1007/s11427-016-5083-9. Epub 2016 Aug 26. Sci China Life Sci. 2016. PMID: 27566465 Review.
Pathogenic microbes infection will also increase the risk of AD, and meanwhile, the onset of AD support the "hygiene hypothesis". All the results suggest that AD may begin in the gut, and is closely related to the imbalance of gut microbiota. ...
Pathogenic microbes infection will also increase the risk of AD, and meanwhile, the onset of AD support the "hygiene hypothesis
The hygiene hypothesis: immunological mechanisms of airway tolerance.
Haspeslagh E, Heyndrickx I, Hammad H, Lambrecht BN. Haspeslagh E, et al. Curr Opin Immunol. 2018 Oct;54:102-108. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2018.06.007. Epub 2018 Jul 7. Curr Opin Immunol. 2018. PMID: 29986301 Free PMC article. Review.
The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last century. The immunological idea behind this hypothesis was a lack of infections associated with a Western lifestyle and a consequential red …
The hygiene hypothesis was initially proposed as an explanation for the alarming rise in allergy prevalence in the last centur …
Does the hygiene hypothesis apply to COVID-19 susceptibility?
Sehrawat S, Rouse BT. Sehrawat S, et al. Microbes Infect. 2020 Oct;22(9):400-402. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2020.07.002. Epub 2020 Jul 9. Microbes Infect. 2020. PMID: 32653475 Free PMC article.
In this commentary we argue that the hygiene hypothesis may apply to COVID-19 susceptibility and also that residence in low hygienic conditions acts to train innate immune defenses to minimize the severity of infection. ...
In this commentary we argue that the hygiene hypothesis may apply to COVID-19 susceptibility and also that residence in low hy …
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