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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1962 1
1984 1
1987 1
1989 4
1990 21
1991 81
1992 68
1993 86
1994 84
1995 74
1996 84
1997 88
1998 97
1999 76
2000 93
2001 115
2002 82
2003 108
2004 120
2005 142
2006 160
2007 246
2008 307
2009 350
2010 400
2011 488
2012 564
2013 746
2014 712
2015 739
2016 656
2017 553
2018 527
2019 238
2020 1
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7,330 results
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Page 1
Antibiotic Resistances of Clostridium difficile.
Spigaglia P, et al. Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 - Review. PMID 29383668
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile and the consequent effects on prevention and treatment of C. difficile infections (CDIs) are matter of concern for public health. ...Different transfer mechanisms facilitate the spread of mobile elements among C. difficile strains and between C. difficile and other species. ...
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile and the consequent effects on prevention and treatment o …
Clostridium difficile spore biology: sporulation, germination, and spore structural proteins.
Paredes-Sabja D, et al. Trends Microbiol 2014 - Review. PMID 24814671 Free PMC article.
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe and a major nosocomial pathogen of worldwide concern. ...In susceptible patients, C. difficile spores germinate in the colon to form the vegetative cells that initiate Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). ...
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe and a major nosocomial pathogen of worldwide concern
How to: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections.
Krutova M, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 - Review. PMID 29274463 Free article.
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. ...Since 2014, the number of centres with capacity for C. difficile typing has increased to 35 reference or central laboratories in 26 European countries. ...
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has …
Microbiologic factors affecting Clostridium difficile recurrence.
Chilton CH, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 - Review. PMID 29208562 Free article.
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. ...SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term 'recurrent Clostridium difficile infection' and further references cited within these articles. ...
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilit …
Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection.
Louie TJ, et al. N Engl J Med 2011 - Clinical Trial. PMID 21288078 Free article.
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is a serious diarrheal illness associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. ...This phase 3 clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin with those of vancomycin in treating C. difficile infection. ...
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is a serious diarrheal illness associated with substantial morbidity and mortality …
Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.
Lessa FC, et al. N Engl J Med 2015. PMID 25714160 Free article.
BACKGROUND: The magnitude and scope of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States continue to evolve. METHODS: In 2011, we performed active population- and laboratory-based surveillance across 10 geographic areas in the United States to identify cases of C. difficile infection (stool specimens positive for C. difficile on either toxin or molecular assay in residents ≥ 1 year of age). ...In a sample of cases of C. difficile infection, specimens were cultured and isolates underwent molecular typing. We used regression models to calculate estimates of national incidence and total number of infections, first recurrences, and deaths within 30 days after the diagnosis of C. difficile infection. ...
BACKGROUND: The magnitude and scope of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States continue to evolve. METHODS: In 20 …
2019 update of the WSES guidelines for management of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in surgical patients.
Sartelli M, et al. World J Emerg Surg 2019 - Review. PMID 30858872 Free PMC article.
In the last three decades, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in incidence and severity in many countries worldwide. ...
In the last three decades, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in incidence and severity in many countries wor …
New insights into transmission of Clostridium difficile infection-narrative review.
Durovic A, et al. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 - Review. PMID 29427800 Free article.
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, Clostridium difficile has been considered a typical healthcare-associated pathogen-that is, one transmitted within healthcare facilities and thus prevented by implementation of standard infection control measures. ...CONTENT: Among 24 original articles included, 63% report on transmission of C. difficile in healthcare settings and 37% investigate sources and transmission of C. difficile in the community. ...
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, Clostridium difficile has been considered a typical healthcare-associated pathogen-that is, one tra …
Updates to Clostridium difficile Spore Germination.
Kochan TJ, et al. J Bacteriol 2018 - Review. PMID 29760211 Free PMC article.
Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Likewise, C. difficile cannot cause disease pathologies unless its spores germinate into metabolically active, toxin-producing cells. ...This review defines unique aspects of the germination pathways of C. difficile and compares them to those of two other well-studied organisms, Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium perfringensC. difficile germination is unique, as C. difficile does not contain any orthologs of the traditional GerA-type germinant receptor complexes and is the only known sporeformer to require bile salts in order to germinate. ...
Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Lik …
The evolving epidemic of Clostridium difficile 630.
Roberts AP and Smits WK. Anaerobe 2018. PMID 29730161
Clostridium difficile is a major pathogen responsible for a range of diseases in humans and animals. The genetic tools used to explore C. difficile biology are a relatively recent development in comparison to those used to investigate some other pathogens. ...Here we review the history of C. difficile 630, the first genome-sequenced C. difficile isolate and the most widely distributed reference strain, and its derivatives. ...
Clostridium difficile is a major pathogen responsible for a range of diseases in humans and animals. The genetic tools used to
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