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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1945 27
1946 56
1947 51
1948 52
1949 40
1950 52
1951 65
1952 83
1953 70
1954 92
1955 82
1956 73
1957 105
1958 76
1959 88
1960 77
1961 91
1962 118
1963 139
1964 234
1965 251
1966 195
1967 376
1968 578
1969 499
1970 486
1971 560
1972 628
1973 545
1974 674
1975 619
1976 705
1977 650
1978 626
1979 545
1980 516
1981 542
1982 695
1983 614
1984 751
1985 847
1986 819
1987 795
1988 690
1989 872
1990 981
1991 911
1992 955
1993 1119
1994 1069
1995 1095
1996 954
1997 802
1998 807
1999 823
2000 759
2001 1008
2002 802
2003 806
2004 939
2005 876
2006 1055
2007 1129
2008 1215
2009 1244
2010 1421
2011 1347
2012 1270
2013 1140
2014 1249
2015 1301
2016 1281
2017 1238
2018 1163
2019 546
2020 14
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45,607 results
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Page 1
The Development of Defense Mechanisms During the Latency Period.
Cramer P. J Nerv Ment Dis 2018. PMID 29419639
The developmental period of latency, during middle childhood, has not been previously studied for possible change in the use of defense mechanisms. ...As predicted from theory, there was a significant increase in the use of the defense of Identification. This finding is consistent with theory that posits a shift at this time from defense against anxiety that is based on lack of impulse control to defense that is based on anxiety due to violation of conscience....
The developmental period of latency, during middle childhood, has not been previously studied for possible change in the use of defense
Defense mechanisms, behavior, and affect in young adulthood.
Cramer P. J Pers 2002. PMID 11908532
The relationship between defense mechanism use, observed behavior, and affect was investigated in a sample of 91 young adults. Defense mechanisms were assessed using Cramer's (1991a) Defense Mechanism Manual for TAT stories; behavior was based on observer Q-sort ratings (Block, 1978). ...
The relationship between defense mechanism use, observed behavior, and affect was investigated in a sample of 91 young adults. Def
Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood.
Sandstrom MJ and Cramer P. J Nerv Ment Dis 2003. PMID 12972850
The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school children. Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed through a combination of parent and self-report questionnaires. ...
The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school childre …
An empirical study of defense mechanisms in dysthymia.
Bloch AL, et al. Am J Psychiatry 1993. PMID 8328563
In this pilot study the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales were used to examine psychodynamic data from patients with dysthymia and patients with panic disorder in order to test the hypotheses that 1) dysthymic patients would be similar to panic patients in endorsing primarily lower-maturity defense mechanisms, 2) dysthymic patients would use a distinct pattern of defense mechanisms, different from that of panic patients, and 3) dysthymic patients would endorse more frequently than panic patients four individual defenses that tend to handle anger and low self-esteem poorly: devaluation, passive aggression, projection, and hypochondriasis. ...Both groups tended to use lower-maturity defense mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The defense mechanism profile identified for dysthymia differs from that for panic disorder and supports particular psychodynamic hypotheses about chronic depression. ...
In this pilot study the Defense Mechanism Rating Scales were used to examine psychodynamic data from patients with dysthymia and pati …
Defense mechanisms associated with borderline personality disorder.
Zanarini MC, et al. J Pers Disord 2009. PMID 19379090 Free PMC article.
They also had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on eight of the 19 defense mechanisms studied. More specifically, borderline patients had significantly higher scores on one neurotic-level defense (undoing), four immature defenses (acting out, emotional hypochondriasis, passive aggression, and projection), and two image-distorting/borderline defenses (projective identification and splitting). In contrast, axis II comparison subjects had a significantly higher score than borderline patients on one mature defense (suppression). ...
They also had significantly higher scores than axis II comparison subjects on eight of the 19 defense mechanisms studied. More …
Defense mechanisms in risk of suicide and risk of violence.
Apter A, et al. Am J Psychiatry 1989. PMID 2750974
This paper reports on an empirical study of defense mechanisms in 60 psychiatric inpatients. Eight defenses--compensation, denial, displacement, intellectualization, projection, reaction formation, regression, and repression--were studied in the context of a two-stage model of suicidal and violent behavior. The results showed that use of regression as a defense differentiated suicidal from nonsuicidal patients, and use of displacement differentiated violent from nonviolent patients. ...
This paper reports on an empirical study of defense mechanisms in 60 psychiatric inpatients. Eight defenses--compensation, den …
Shame
Dossey L. Explore (NY) 2005 - Review. PMID 16781506
Girls' use of defense mechanisms following peer rejection.
Sandstrom MJ and Cramer P. J Pers 2003. PMID 12901432
This study explores the relation between girls' social adjustment and their use of defense mechanisms. We recruited girls representing four sociometric status classifications (rejected, neglected, average, and popular), and assessed their use of defense mechanisms both before and after encountering a peer rejection experience in the laboratory. ...There was a significant negative relationship between social adjustment and defense use, both prior to and immediately following the rejection experience. ...
This study explores the relation between girls' social adjustment and their use of defense mechanisms. We recruited girls repr …
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