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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1974 4
1981 1
1983 3
1985 1
1986 5
1987 29
1988 100
1989 95
1990 138
1991 146
1992 153
1993 136
1994 166
1995 172
1996 156
1997 153
1998 151
1999 154
2000 213
2001 351
2002 550
2003 641
2004 696
2005 787
2006 896
2007 1039
2008 915
2009 811
2010 787
2011 878
2012 979
2013 1055
2014 1197
2015 1229
2016 1305
2017 1580
2018 1725
2019 896
2020 13
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18,244 results
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Page 1
Distinguishing between resistance, tolerance and persistence to antibiotic treatment.
Brauner A, et al. Nat Rev Microbiol 2016 - Review. PMID 27080241
Antibiotic tolerance is associated with the failure of antibiotic treatment and the relapse of many bacterial infections. However, unlike resistance, which is commonly measured using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) metric, tolerance is poorly characterized, owing to the lack of a similar quantitative indicator. ...We propose a framework for classifying the drug response of bacterial strains according to these definitions that is based on the measurement of the MIC together with a recently defined quantitative indicator of tolerance, the minimum duration for killing (MDK). ...
Antibiotic tolerance is associated with the failure of antibiotic treatment and the relapse of many bacterial infections. However, un …
The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.
Perry J, et al. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2016 - Review. PMID 27252395 Free PMC article.
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. ...Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution....
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinica …
Antimicrobial Resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella.
McDermott PF, et al. Microbiol Spectr 2018 - Review. PMID 30027887
Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the most common foodborne bacterial pathogen in most countries. It is widely present in food animal species, and therefore blocking its transmission through the food supply is a prominent focus of food safety activities worldwide. Antibiotic resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella arises in large part because of antibiotic use in animal husbandry. Tracking resistance in Salmonella is required to design targeted interventions to contain or diminish resistance and refine use practices in production. ...
Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the most common foodborne bacterial pathogen in most countries. It is widely present in food animal speci …
Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter spp.
Shen Z, et al. Microbiol Spectr 2018 - Review. PMID 29623873
To cope with the selection pressure from antimicrobial use in both veterinary and human medicine, Campylobacter has developed multiple mechanisms for antibiotic resistance, including modification or mutation of antimicrobial targets, modification or inactivation of antibiotics, and reduced drug accumulation by drug efflux pumps. Some of these mechanisms confer resistance to a specific class of antimicrobials, while others give rise to multidrug resistance. ...
To cope with the selection pressure from antimicrobial use in both veterinary and human medicine, Campylobacter has developed multiple mecha …
Multidrug evolutionary strategies to reverse antibiotic resistance.
Baym M, et al. Science 2016 - Review. PMID 26722002 Free PMC article.
Antibiotic treatment has two conflicting effects: the desired, immediate effect of inhibiting bacterial growth and the undesired, long-term effect of promoting the evolution of resistance. ...Decoupling treatment efficacy from the risk of resistance can be achieved by exploiting specific interactions between drugs, and the ways in which resistance mutations to a given drug can modulate these interactions or increase the sensitivity of the bacteria to other compounds. ...
Antibiotic treatment has two conflicting effects: the desired, immediate effect of inhibiting bacterial growth and the undesired, lon …
Antibiotic resistance and its cost: is it possible to reverse resistance?
Andersson DI and Hughes D. Nat Rev Microbiol 2010 - Review. PMID 20208551
Most antibiotic resistance mechanisms are associated with a fitness cost that is typically observed as a reduced bacterial growth rate. The magnitude of this cost is the main biological parameter that influences the rate of development of resistance, the stability of the resistance and the rate at which the resistance might decrease if antibiotic use were reduced. ...
Most antibiotic resistance mechanisms are associated with a fitness cost that is typically observed as a reduced bacterial gro …
Antibiotic Resistance.
Yelin I and Kishony R. Cell 2018. PMID 29474914 Free article.
Bacterial mechanisms of drug resistance operate at sequential lines of defense tackling drug at entry, accumulation, target binding, or downstream toxicity. ...A many-to-many relationship prevails between resistance mechanisms and the spectrum of genetic changes encoding them....
Bacterial mechanisms of drug resistance operate at sequential lines of defense tackling drug at entry, accumulat
Genetics of antimicrobial resistance.
Harbottle H, et al. Anim Biotechnol 2006 - Review. PMID 17127523
Acquired bacterial antibiotic resistance can result from the mutation of normal cellular genes, the acquisition of foreign resistance genes, or a combination of these two mechanisms. ...The spread of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons has greatly contributed to the rapid dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among several bacterial genera of human and veterinary importance. ...
Acquired bacterial antibiotic resistance can result from the mutation of normal cellular genes, the acquisition of foreign …
Prediction of antibiotic resistance: time for a new preclinical paradigm?
Sommer MOA, et al. Nat Rev Microbiol 2017 - Review. PMID 28757648
Still, this is what is required of drug developers when they assess the risk of resistance arising against a new antibiotic candidate during preclinical development. In this Opinion article, we argue that the traditional procedures that are used for the prediction of antibiotic resistance today could be markedly improved by including a broader analysis of bacterial fitness, infection dynamics, horizontal gene transfer and other factors. ...
Still, this is what is required of drug developers when they assess the risk of resistance arising against a new antibiotic ca …
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: arsenal of resistance mechanisms, decades of changing resistance profiles, and future antimicrobial therapies.
El Zowalaty ME, et al. Future Microbiol 2015 - Review. PMID 26439366
The frequent, prolonged, and uncontrolled use of antimicrobial agents are major factors in the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant variants. ...Here, we discuss recent antibacterial resistance profiles and mechanisms of resistance by P. aeruginosa. We also review future potential methods for controlling antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as phage therapy, nanotechnology and antipseudomonal vaccines....
The frequent, prolonged, and uncontrolled use of antimicrobial agents are major factors in the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacte
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