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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1945 5
1946 7
1947 15
1948 30
1949 16
1950 9
1951 24
1952 27
1953 162
1954 113
1955 111
1956 65
1957 23
1958 26
1959 26
1960 27
1961 38
1962 195
1963 615
1964 923
1965 727
1966 721
1967 1007
1968 1207
1969 1256
1970 1270
1971 1377
1972 1367
1973 1397
1974 1522
1975 1234
1976 1174
1977 1241
1978 1166
1979 1305
1980 1171
1981 1174
1982 1397
1983 1438
1984 1566
1985 1630
1986 1578
1987 1427
1988 1483
1989 1607
1990 1695
1991 1789
1992 1923
1993 1927
1994 2032
1995 2262
1996 2317
1997 2622
1998 2981
1999 2998
2000 3366
2001 3692
2002 3933
2003 4361
2004 4558
2005 5218
2006 5550
2007 6103
2008 6125
2009 5444
2010 5728
2011 6316
2012 6739
2013 6640
2014 7038
2015 6968
2016 7183
2017 7336
2018 7593
2019 3994
2020 92
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160,836 results
Results by year
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Page 1
Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance.
Munita JM and Arias CA. Microbiol Spectr 2016 - Review. PMID 27227291 Free PMC article.
Multidrug-resistant organisms have not only emerged in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. ...Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and to devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. ...
Multidrug-resistant organisms have not only emerged in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, s …
Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance.
Davies J and Davies D. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2010 - Review. PMID 20805405 Free PMC article.
This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant with their use. The extraordinary genetic capacities of microbes have benefitted from man's overuse of antibiotics to exploit every source of resistance genes and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop multiple mechanisms of resistance for each and every antibiotic introduced into practice clinically, agriculturally, or otherwise. ...
This is true, but the real wonder is the rise of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, communities, and the environment concomitant wit …
Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
Bengtsson-Palme J, et al. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2018 - Review. PMID 29069382 Free PMC article.
Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. ...In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans....
Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environme …
Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance: setting a parameter space.
Martínez JL and Baquero F. Ups J Med Sci 2014 - Review. PMID 24678768 Free PMC article.
In the present review, we discuss some basic aspects of antibiotic resistance, including mechanisms of resistance, origin of resistance genes, and bottlenecks that modulate the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens. In addition, we analyse several parameters that modulate the evolution landscape of antibiotic resistance. Learning why some resistance mechanisms emerge but do not evolve after a first burst, whereas others can spread over the entire world very rapidly, mimicking a chain reaction, is important for predicting the evolution, and relevance for human health, of a given mechanism of resistance. ...
In the present review, we discuss some basic aspects of antibiotic resistance, including mechanisms of resistance, origin of …
Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Dever LA and Dermody TS. Arch Intern Med 1991 - Review. PMID 2025137
Antibiotic resistance can be either plasmid mediated or maintained on the bacterial chromosome. The most important mechanism of resistance to the penicillins and cephalosporins is antibiotic hydrolysis mediated by the bacterial enzyme beta-lactamase. ...Resistance to methicillin, which is stable to gram-positive beta-lactamase, occurs through the alteration of an antibiotic target protein, penicillin-binding protein 2. ...
Antibiotic resistance can be either plasmid mediated or maintained on the bacterial chromosome. The most important mechanism of re
Antibiotic resistance: A current epilogue.
Dodds DR. Biochem Pharmacol 2017 - Review. PMID 27956111
The second half of the 20th century saw the new use of antibiotics as growth promoters for food animals in the human diet, and the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st saw the beginning and rapid rise of advanced microbial resistance to antibiotics....
The second half of the 20th century saw the new use of antibiotics as growth promoters for food animals in the human diet, and the end of th …
Antibiotic Resistances of Clostridium difficile.
Spigaglia P, et al. Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 - Review. PMID 29383668
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile and the consequent effects on prevention and treatment of C. difficile infections (CDIs) are matter of concern for public health. Antibiotic resistance plays an important role in driving C. difficile epidemiology. Emergence of new types is often associated with the emergence of new resistances and most of epidemic C. difficile clinical isolates is currently resistant to multiple antibiotics. ...
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile and the consequent effects on prevention and treatment of C. di …
Antimicrobial-drug resistance.
Gold HS and Moellering RC. N Engl J Med 1996 - Review. PMID 8875923
Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Principles and Practice
Cunha CB. Med Clin North Am 2018 - Review. PMID 30126571
Antimicrobial stewardship involves optimizing antibiotic use while using cost-effective interventions to minimize antibiotic resistance and control Clostridium difficile. ...The ID clinician leader should have special expertise in various aspects of antimicrobial therapy, that is, pharmacokinetics, resistance, pharmacoeconomics, and C difficile. ...
Antimicrobial stewardship involves optimizing antibiotic use while using cost-effective interventions to minimize antibiotic resistance
Microbiome as a tool and a target in the effort to address antimicrobial resistance.
Relman DA and Lipsitch M. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018. PMID 30559176 Free PMC article.
Other strategies involving manipulation of the microbiome to deplete antibiotic-resistant organisms or to enhance immune responses to vaccines may prove valuable in addressing antimicrobial resistance as well. This article describes the intersections of immunity, microbiome and antimicrobial exposure, and the use of vaccines and other alternative strategies for the control and management of antimicrobial resistance....
Other strategies involving manipulation of the microbiome to deplete antibiotic-resistant organisms or to enhance immune responses to …
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