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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1948 1
1954 1
1955 1
1957 1
1958 1
1959 1
1961 1
1962 1
1964 1
1977 5
1978 27
1979 31
1980 70
1981 140
1982 337
1983 437
1984 643
1985 929
1986 1174
1987 1415
1988 1492
1989 1689
1990 1655
1991 1679
1992 1719
1993 1658
1994 1516
1995 1518
1996 1427
1997 1243
1998 1234
1999 1181
2000 1190
2001 1057
2002 1069
2003 1053
2004 902
2005 956
2006 873
2007 900
2008 899
2009 860
2010 833
2011 842
2012 872
2013 759
2014 786
2015 670
2016 632
2017 543
2018 481
2019 203
2020 2
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38,346 results
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Page 1
Signaling and Function of Interleukin-2 in T Lymphocytes.
Ross SH and Cantrell DA. Annu Rev Immunol 2018 - Review. PMID 29677473 Free PMC article.
The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and homeostasis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells is fundamental to determining the molecular details of immune regulation. ...The development of global phosphoproteomic approaches has expanded the understanding of IL-2 signaling further, revealing the diversity of phosphoproteins that may be influenced by IL-2 in T cells. ...
The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. IL- …
Innate lymphoid cells support regulatory T cells in the intestine through interleukin-2.
Zhou L, et al. Nature 2019. PMID 30944470 Free PMC article.
Interleukin (IL)-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is necessary to prevent chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract(1-4). The protective effects of IL-2 involve the generation, maintenance and function of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells(4-8), and the use of low doses of IL-2 has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease(9). ...
Interleukin (IL)-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is necessary to prevent chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract(1
Interleukin-2 shapes the cytotoxic T cell proteome and immune environment-sensing programs.
Rollings CM, et al. Sci Signal 2018. PMID 29666307 Free PMC article.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). ...One fundamental insight was the dominant role for IL-2 in stimulating effector T cells to detect microenvironmental cues. IL-2-JAK1/3 signaling pathways thus increased the abundance of nutrient transporters, nutrient sensors, and critical oxygen-sensing molecules. ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the di
Revisiting IL-2: Biology and therapeutic prospects.
Abbas AK, et al. Sci Immunol 2018 - Review. PMID 29980618
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), the first cytokine that was molecularly cloned, was shown to be a T cell growth factor essential for the proliferation of T cells and the generation of effector and memory cells. ...Recent therapeutic strategies have emerged to use IL-2, monoclonal antibodies to IL-2, or IL-2 variants to boost T(reg) cell numbers and function to treat autoimmune diseases while dealing with the continuing challenges to minimize the generation of effector and memory cells, natural killer cells, and other innate lymphoid populations....
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), the first cytokine that was molecularly cloned, was shown to be a T cell growth factor essential
Interleukin 2 modulates thymic-derived regulatory T cell epigenetic landscape.
Chorro L, et al. Nat Commun 2018. PMID 30560927 Free PMC article.
Here, using a mouse model with reduced IL-2 signaling, we show that IL-2 regulates the positioning of the pioneer factor SATB1 in CD4(+) thymocytes and controls genome wide chromatin accessibility of thymic-derived T(reg) cells. We also show that T(reg) cells receiving only low IL-2 signals can suppress endogenous but not WT autoreactive T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. ...
Here, using a mouse model with reduced IL-2 signaling, we show that IL-2 regulates the positioning of the pioneer factor SATB1 …
De novo design of potent and selective mimics of IL-2 and IL-15.
Silva DA, et al. Nature 2019. PMID 30626941 Free PMC article.
We use this strategy to design mimics of the central immune cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) that bind to the IL-2 receptor βγ(c) heterodimer (IL-2Rβγ(c)) but have no binding site for IL-2Rα (also called CD25) or IL-15Rα (also known as CD215). ...Crystal structures of the optimized design neoleukin-2/15 (Neo-2/15), both alone and in complex with IL-2Rβγ(c), are very similar to the designed model. ...
We use this strategy to design mimics of the central immune cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) that bind to the IL-2
Culturing the Human Natural Killer Cell Line NK-92 in Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-15 - Implications for Clinical Trials.
Törnroos H, et al. Anticancer Res 2019. PMID 30591446
Herein, NK-92 cells were analyzed with respect to their proliferation and cytotoxicity, in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-15 (IL-15). ...RESULTS: IL-2 and IL-15, but not IL-4 or IL-7, were able to induce a dose-dependent proliferation of NK-92 cells. IL-15 was, depending on the dose and culture time, up to 10 times more potent compared to corresponding concentrations of IL-2, whereas their combination could potentiate the NK-activity almost equally well. ...
Herein, NK-92 cells were analyzed with respect to their proliferation and cytotoxicity, in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL- …
Isoproterenol-induced beta-2 adrenergic receptor activation negatively regulates interleukin-2 signaling.
Ruiz-Medina BE, et al. Biochem J 2018. PMID 30120106
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a key regulator of lymphocytes, signals following receptor-ligand engagement and subsequent recruitment and activation of effector proteins including JAKs and STATs. ...In contrast, ISO treatment prior to IL-2 stimulation produced an inhibitory signal that disrupted IL-2 induced activation of the JAK/STAT, MEK/ERK, and PI3K pathways by inhibiting the formation of the IL-2R beta-gamma chain complex, and subsequently cell proliferation. ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a key regulator of lymphocytes, signals following receptor-ligand engagement and subsequent recru
Interleukin 2 with anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO (dinutuximab beta) in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL1/SIOPEN): a multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial.
Ladenstein R, et al. Lancet Oncol 2018 - Clinical Trial. PMID 30442501
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with the chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody dinutuximab, combined with alternating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and intravenous interleukin-2 (IL-2), improves survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. ...All participants received oral isotretinoin (160 mg/m(2) per day for 2 weeks) before the first immunotherapy cycle and after each immunotherapy cycle, for six cycles. ...
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with the chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody dinutuximab, combined with alternating granulocyte-macrophage colon …
Interleukin-2 induces the in vitro maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids.
Jung KB, et al. Nat Commun 2018. PMID 30072687 Free PMC article.
Here, we show that the co-culture with human T lymphocytes induce the in vitro maturation of hIOs, and identify STAT3-activating interleukin-2 (IL-2) as the major factor inducing maturation. hIOs exposed to IL-2 closely mimic the adult intestinal epithelium and have comparable expression levels of mature intestinal markers, as well as increased intestine-specific functional activities. ...
Here, we show that the co-culture with human T lymphocytes induce the in vitro maturation of hIOs, and identify STAT3-activating interleu
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