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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1948 1
1954 2
1955 7
1956 24
1957 36
1958 28
1959 18
1964 2
1965 16
1966 125
1967 209
1968 223
1969 218
1970 225
1971 280
1972 266
1973 307
1974 376
1975 343
1976 356
1977 344
1978 362
1979 424
1980 385
1981 414
1982 496
1983 454
1984 441
1985 462
1986 498
1987 504
1988 639
1989 605
1990 691
1991 643
1992 703
1993 649
1994 693
1995 709
1996 742
1997 810
1998 782
1999 834
2000 809
2001 786
2002 913
2003 934
2004 1009
2005 1091
2006 1284
2007 1370
2008 1549
2009 1426
2010 1420
2011 1622
2012 1797
2013 1854
2014 1772
2015 1795
2016 1755
2017 1689
2018 1624
2019 677
2020 3
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39,491 results
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Page 1
Conditioned Taste Avoidance Drug Discrimination Procedure: Assessments and Applications.
Riley AL, et al. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 - Review. PMID 27221624
Results from these assessments parallel those from more traditional operant and maze designs in classifying and characterizing the discriminative properties of drug. ...The application of drug discrimination learning to human drug abuse continues to be an important consideration for this specific design (as well as that of drug discrimination procedures in general), and recent parallels between drug use and food intake in terms of its regulation by interoceptive stimuli suggests a possible role of the loss of stimulus control in drug escalation and addiction (with possible therapeutic implications via the modulation of these interoceptive cues)....
Results from these assessments parallel those from more traditional operant and maze designs in classifying and characterizing the discrimin …
Punishment and reinforcement by opioid receptor agonists in a choice procedure in rats
Minervini V, et al. Behav Pharmacol 2019. PMID 30320606 Free PMC article.
Intravenous (i.v.) drug self-administration remains the 'gold standard' for assessing abuse potential of drugs. Failure of a drug to maintain self-administration might indicate merely the absence of positive-reinforcing effects but might also indicate presence of aversive effects. Sensitivity to aversive effects is thought to affect the initiation and maintenance of drug use as well as relapse. Choice procedures are used to study positive-reinforcing effects of drugs and to a much lesser extent to study punishing effects of drugs. ...
Intravenous (i.v.) drug self-administration remains the 'gold standard' for assessing abuse potential of drugs. Failure of a drug
Learning and memory is modulated by cannabidiol when administered during trace fear-conditioning
Uhernik AL, et al. Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018. PMID 29432803
This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD. ...Overall, the memory-modulating effects of a single pre-conditioning dose of CBD, which we show here, demonstrate the need to more fully characterize its basic effects on memory, suggest caution when using it clinically as an anxiolytic, and point to a need for more research into its potential as a therapeutic for treating memory-loss disorders....
This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes
Behavioral methods for measuring effects of drugs on learning and memory in animals.
Heise GA. Med Res Rev 1984 - Review. PMID 6387332
For each method, selected experimental examples were presented which described the action of drugs on learning and memory, elucidated the behavioral processes involved in the drug effects, or illustrated methodological points. ...How, then, should drug effects on learning and memory be identified or measured? The first step, of course, is to rule out those drug effects that do not conform to the definition of learning or memory. ...
For each method, selected experimental examples were presented which described the action of drugs on learning and memory, elucidated the be …
Cannabidiol disrupts the reconsolidation of contextual drug-associated memories in Wistar rats.
de Carvalho CR and Takahashi RN. Addict Biol 2017. PMID 26833888
In addicts, craving and relapse are frequently induced by the recall of memories related to a drug experience. Several studies have demonstrated that drug-related memories are reactivated after exposure to environmental cues and may undergo reconsolidation, a process that can strengthen memories. ...Thus, established memories induced by a drug of abuse can be blocked after reactivation of the drug experience. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the disruptive effect of CBD on reconsolidation of contextual drug-related memories and highlight its therapeutic potential to attenuate contextual memories associated with drugs of abuse and consequently to reduce the risk of relapse....
In addicts, craving and relapse are frequently induced by the recall of memories related to a drug experience. Several studies have d …
Vortioxetine reduces BOLD signal during performance of the N-back working memory task: a randomised neuroimaging trial in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls
Smith J, et al. Mol Psychiatry 2018 - Clinical Trial. PMID 28533517 Free PMC article.
The effects of treatment on functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during an N-back working memory task were assessed at baseline and at the end of treatment. ...This study provides evidence that vortioxetine has direct effects on the neural circuitry supporting cognitive function that can be dissociated from its effects on the mood symptoms of depression....
The effects of treatment on functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during an N-back working memory task were assessed at bas …
Applications and limitations of behaviorally conditioned immunopharmacological responses
Lückemann L, et al. Neurobiol Learn Mem 2017 - Review. PMID 28216206
One possible application for placebo responses in pharmacotherapy is given by learning paradigms, such as behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression, aiming at drug dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic efficacy of drug treatment. ...The conditioned response, evoked by re-presenting the CS alone at a later time, is reflected by avoidance behavior of consuming the solution (conditioned taste aversion; CTA) and a diminished interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ cytokine production as well as mRNA expression of rat splenic T cells or human peripheral T lymphocytes, closely mimicking the immunosuppressive effects of CsA. ...
One possible application for placebo responses in pharmacotherapy is given by learning paradigms, such as behaviorally conditioned immunosup …
Nicotine-enhanced Pavlovian conditioned approach is resistant to omission of expected outcome
Stringfield SJ, et al. Behav Brain Res 2018. PMID 29407412 Free PMC article.
In contrast, US omission only reduced goal-tracking, with robust effects in saline-exposed rats and smaller effects in nicotine-exposed rats. ...
In contrast, US omission only reduced goal-tracking, with robust effects in saline-exposed rats and smaller effects in nicotin …
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