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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1993 6
1994 44
1995 59
1996 61
1997 61
1998 78
1999 65
2000 103
2001 85
2002 110
2003 133
2004 112
2005 142
2006 163
2007 161
2008 169
2009 165
2010 202
2011 226
2012 258
2013 309
2014 308
2015 327
2016 394
2017 462
2018 453
2019 184
2020 1
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4,274 results
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Microglial M1/M2 polarization and metabolic states
Orihuela R, et al. Br J Pharmacol 2016 - Review. PMID 25800044 Free PMC article.
More recently, the link between polarization and mitochondrial energy metabolism has been considered in microglia. Under these conditions, energy demands would be associated with functional activities and cell survival and thus, may serve to influence the contribution of microglia activation to various neurodegenerative conditions. This review examines the polarization states of microglia and their relationship to mitochondrial metabolism. Additional supporting experimental data are provided to demonstrate mitochondrial metabolic shifts in primary microglia and the BV-2 microglia cell line induced under LPS (M1) and IL-4/IL-13 (M2) polarization....
More recently, the link between polarization and mitochondrial energy metabolism has been considered in microglia. Under these …
Disease-Associated Microglia: A Universal Immune Sensor of Neurodegeneration.
Deczkowska A, et al. Cell 2018 - Review. PMID 29775591 Free article.
Accumulating evidence suggests that disease-associated microglia (DAM), a recently identified subset of CNS resident macrophages found at sites of neurodegeneration, might play such a protective role. Here, we propose that microglia are endowed with a dedicated sensory mechanism, which includes the Trem2 signaling pathway, to detect damage within the CNS in the form of neurodegeneration-associated molecular patterns (NAMPs). ...
Accumulating evidence suggests that disease-associated microglia (DAM), a recently identified subset of CNS resident macrophages foun …
Neuronal Cell Death
Fricker M, et al. Physiol Rev 2018 - Review. PMID 29488822 Free PMC article.
We next explore the mechanisms of neuronal death during development, and those induced by axotomy, aberrant cell-cycle reentry, glutamate (excitoxicity and oxytosis), loss of connected neurons, aggregated proteins and the unfolded protein response, oxidants, inflammation, and microglia. ...
We next explore the mechanisms of neuronal death during development, and those induced by axotomy, aberrant cell-cycle reentry, glutamate (e …
Microglia and Aging: The Role of the TREM2-DAP12 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 Axes.
Mecca C, et al. Int J Mol Sci 2018 - Review. PMID 29361745 Free PMC article.
There is evidence that human and rodent microglia may become senescent. This event determines alterations in the microglia activation status, associated with a chronic inflammation phenotype and with the loss of neuroprotective functions that lead to a greater susceptibility to the neurodegenerative diseases of aging. ...The CX3CL1 (fractalkine)-CX3CR1 signaling represents the most important communication channel between neurons and microglia. ...
There is evidence that human and rodent microglia may become senescent. This event determines alterations in the microglia act …
Bioenergetic regulation of microglia.
Ghosh S, et al. Glia 2018 - Review. PMID 29219210 Free PMC article.
Microglia, like most other cell types, express the full complement of gene products required for both glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. ...These actions suppress microglia activation after brain injury and promote neuroprotective microglia phenotypes. As our understanding of microglial activation matures, additional links between energy metabolism and microglial function are likely to be identified....
Microglia, like most other cell types, express the full complement of gene products required for both glycolytic and oxidative met
Microglia innately develop within cerebral organoids.
Ormel PR, et al. Nat Commun 2018. PMID 30301888 Free PMC article.
The transcriptome and response to inflammatory stimulation of these organoid-grown microglia closely mimic the transcriptome and response of adult microglia acutely isolated from post mortem human brain tissue. In addition, organoid-grown microglia mediate phagocytosis and synaptic material is detected inside them. In all, our study characterizes a microglia-containing organoid model that represents a valuable tool for studying the interplay between microglia, macroglia, and neurons in human brain development and disease....
The transcriptome and response to inflammatory stimulation of these organoid-grown microglia closely mimic the transcriptome and resp …
Microglia energy metabolism in metabolic disorder.
Kalsbeek MJ, et al. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2016 - Review. PMID 27687525
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and are in charge of maintaining a healthy microenvironment to ensure neuronal survival. ...Microglial fuel metabolism might be associated with microglial reactivity under different pathophysiological conditions and a microglial fuel switch may thus be the underlying cause of hypothalamic dysregulation, which is associated with obesity....
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and are in charge of maintaining a healthy microenvironment to ensure neuronal sur
Microglia and neuroprotection.
Chen Z and Trapp BD. J Neurochem 2016 - Review. PMID 25693054 Free article.
Despite the traditional view of microglia as being destructive in neurological diseases, recent studies have shown that microglia maintain CNS homeostasis and protect the CNS under various pathological conditions. Microglia can be prophylactically activated by modeling infection with systemic lipopolysaccharide injections and these activated microglia can protect the brain from traumatic injury through modulation of neuronal synapses. ...
Despite the traditional view of microglia as being destructive in neurological diseases, recent studies have shown that microglia
Microglia and the Brain: Complementary Partners in Development and Disease.
Hammond TR, et al. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2018 - Review. PMID 30089221
An explosion of findings driven by powerful new technologies has expanded our understanding of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). ...Furthermore, we examine how normal developmental functions of microglia are perturbed or remerge in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease....
An explosion of findings driven by powerful new technologies has expanded our understanding of microglia, the resident immune cells o …
Microglia and Astrocytes in Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Therapy.
Fakhoury M. Curr Neuropharmacol 2018 - Review. PMID 28730967 Free PMC article.
METHODS: This paper provides an overview of findings from both human and animal studies investigating the role of microglia and astrocytes in AD, and discusses potential avenues for therapeutic intervention. ...CONCLUSION: A better understanding of the role of microglia and astrocytes in the regulation of AD pathology is needed as this could pave the way for new therapeutic strategies....
METHODS: This paper provides an overview of findings from both human and animal studies investigating the role of microglia and astro …
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