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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1945 3
1947 2
1948 2
1949 2
1951 2
1952 12
1953 21
1954 31
1955 39
1956 19
1957 4
1958 23
1959 39
1960 37
1961 28
1962 28
1963 1
1964 12
1965 19
1966 81
1967 155
1968 104
1969 5
1970 1
1971 14
1972 7
1973 36
1974 33
1975 179
1976 250
1977 277
1978 294
1979 310
1980 381
1981 336
1982 425
1983 433
1984 472
1985 446
1986 515
1987 497
1988 533
1989 510
1990 559
1991 654
1992 634
1993 592
1994 597
1995 589
1996 626
1997 611
1998 738
1999 708
2000 811
2001 754
2002 821
2003 812
2004 934
2005 975
2006 1024
2007 1060
2008 1078
2009 1147
2010 1286
2011 1568
2012 1549
2013 1810
2014 1831
2015 1898
2016 1873
2017 2027
2018 1876
2019 714
2020 5
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35,550 results
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Page 1
Sleep Regulation, Physiology and Development, Sleep Duration and Patterns, and Sleep Hygiene in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool-Age Children.
Bathory E and Tomopoulos S. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2017 - Review. PMID 28117135
Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep. ...Thus, counseling families on sleep requires an understanding of sleep regulation, physiology, developmental patterns, optimal sleep duration recommendations, and the many factors that influence sleep and sleep hygiene....
Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the p
The Sleep-Immune Crosstalk in Health and Disease.
Besedovsky L, et al. Physiol Rev 2019 - Review. PMID 30920354 Free PMC article.
Sleep and immunity are bidirectionally linked. Immune system activation alters sleep, and sleep in turn affects the innate and adaptive arm of our body's defense system. ...This notion is supported by findings that prolonged sleep deficiency (e.g., short sleep duration, sleep disturbance) can lead to chronic, systemic low-grade inflammation and is associated with various diseases that have an inflammatory component, like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegeneration. ...
Sleep and immunity are bidirectionally linked. Immune system activation alters sleep, and sleep in turn affects the inn
Exploring phylogeny to find the function of sleep.
Anafi RC, et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 2019 - Review. PMID 30573905
During sleep, animals do not eat, reproduce or forage. Sleeping animals are vulnerable to predation. Yet, the persistence of sleep despite evolutionary pressures, and the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation, indicate that sleep serves a function or functions that cannot easily be bypassed. ...Here, we give an overview of sleep across various species, with the aim of determining its original purpose. Sleep exists in animals without cephalized nervous systems and can be influenced by non-neuronal signals, including those associated with metabolic rhythms. ...
During sleep, animals do not eat, reproduce or forage. Sleeping animals are vulnerable to predation. Yet, the persistence of sleep
Basic sleep mechanisms: an integrative review.
Murillo-Rodriguez E, et al. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 2012 - Review. PMID 22524274
On the other hand the sleep-onset is governed by the activity of sleep-promoting neurons placed in the anterior hypothalamus that utilize GABA to inhibit wake-promoting regions. ...The sleep-wake cycle is currently undergoing intense research with many new findings leading to new paradigms concerning sleep regulation, brain organization and sleep function. ...
On the other hand the sleep-onset is governed by the activity of sleep-promoting neurons placed in the anterior hypothalamus t …
The mysteries of sleep and waking unveiled by Michel Jouvet.
Jones BE. Sleep Med 2018. PMID 29983241 Free PMC article.
A great pioneer in sleep research, Michel Jouvet applied rigorous scientific methods to the study of sleep-wake states and associated changes in consciousness which, with his vivid imagination and creative mind, he unveiled as the mysteries of sleep and waking such as to inspire a generation of researchers in the field. His initial discovery of a third state distinguished from waking (W) and slow wave sleep (SWS) by the paradoxical association of W-like cortical activity with sleep-like behavior and muscle atonia that he accordingly called "paradoxical sleep" (PS) began his investigation over some 50 years of the mechanisms of these three sleep-wake states. ...
A great pioneer in sleep research, Michel Jouvet applied rigorous scientific methods to the study of sleep-wake states and ass …
Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?
Ackermann S and Rasch B. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2014 - Review. PMID 24395522
Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and stage N2 sleep for different types of memories. ...However, recent evidence for the benefit of REM sleep for non-declarative memories is rather scarce. In contrast, several recent studies have related consolidation of procedural memories (and some also emotional memories) to SWS (or non-REM sleep)-dependent consolidation processes. ...
Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slow-wave sleep (SWS),
Dreaming in NREM Sleep: A High-Density EEG Study of Slow Waves and Spindles.
Siclari F, et al. J Neurosci 2018. PMID 30201768 Free PMC article.
Dreaming can occur in both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. We recently showed that in both REM and NREM sleep, dreaming is associated with local decreases in slow wave activity (SWA) in posterior brain regions. ...These results provide noninvasive measures that could represent a useful tool to infer the state of consciousness during sleep....
Dreaming can occur in both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. We recently showed that in both REM and NREM sleep
Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep.
Siegel JM. Nature 2005 - Review. PMID 16251951
The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energy conservation and in nervous system recuperation. Theories of REM sleep have suggested a role for this state in periodic brain activation during sleep, in localized recuperative processes and in emotional regulation. ...
The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energ …
Slow-wave sleep: From the cell to the clinic.
Léger D, et al. Sleep Med Rev 2018 - Review. PMID 29490885
In recent decades, increasing evidence has positioned slow-wave sleep (SWS) as a major actor in neurophysiological phenomena such as glucose metabolism, hormone release, immunity and memory. ...We then describe its role in physiology and cognition to finally assess its association with clinical aspects. Finally, we address practical considerations for several techniques that could be used to manipulate SWS, in order to improve our understanding of SWS and possibly help the development of treatments for SWS clinical disorders....
In recent decades, increasing evidence has positioned slow-wave sleep (SWS) as a major actor in neurophysiological phenomena such as …
Sleep spindles in adolescence: a comparison across sleep restriction and sleep extension.
Reynolds CM, et al. Sleep Med 2018. PMID 30056287
BACKGROUND: The tendency for adolescents to have restricted sleep has been examined in numerous studies; however, the impact of sleep restriction on adolescents' neural activity during sleep (measured by electroencephalography (EEG)) is less extensively researched, particularly regarding sleep spindles. ...Sleep restriction is highly prevalent among adolescents. These findings indicate that chronic sleep restriction has an impact on brain activity related to sleep spindles....
BACKGROUND: The tendency for adolescents to have restricted sleep has been examined in numerous studies; however, the impact of sl
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