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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1975 1
1976 1
1980 1
1982 1
1983 1
1985 1
1987 2
1989 3
1991 3
1992 5
1993 3
1994 1
1995 11
1996 8
1997 2
1998 1
2000 1
2001 4
2002 2
2003 3
2004 2
2005 3
2006 9
2007 3
2008 5
2009 5
2010 1
2011 3
2012 4
2013 5
2014 8
2015 2
2016 2
2017 3
2018 2
2020 0
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106 results
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Page 1
Comparison of ocular disposition of free pivalic acid and pivalic acid esterified in dipivefrin.
Tamaru RD, et al. Arch Ophthalmol 1983. PMID 6347153
Dipivefrin, a diester of pivalic acid and epinephrine that is used in the treatment of glaucoma, has been shown to be hydrolyzed in the cornea, and the ocular pharmacokinetics of the active moiety, epinephrine, have been determined. A comparison of the ocular disposition of the pivalic acid released by hydrolysis of dipivefrin and that of topically applied free pivalic acid showed that the released pivalic acid is not metabolized in the eye and is rapidly eliminated from the eye with no apparent sequestration in ocular tissues. ...
Dipivefrin, a diester of pivalic acid and epinephrine that is used in the treatment of glaucoma, has been shown to be hydrolyz …
Hypocarnitinemia Observed in an Infant Treated with Short-Term Administration of Antibiotic Containing Pivalic Acid.
Nakazaki K, et al. Tohoku J Exp Med 2018. PMID 29628457 Free article.
Pivalic acid is a substance used in prodrugs to increase absorption of parent drugs, and antibiotics containing pivalic acid are frequently used as wide spectrum antibiotics for pediatric patients in Japan. Pivalic acid released after absorption is conjugated with free carnitine to form pivaloylcarnitine, which is then excreted in urine. ...
Pivalic acid is a substance used in prodrugs to increase absorption of parent drugs, and antibiotics containing pivalic
Pivalic acid acts as a starter unit in a fatty acid and antibiotic biosynthetic pathway in Alicyclobacillus, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces.
Rezanka T, et al. Environ Microbiol 2011. PMID 21450004
A biosynthetic pathway using pivalic acid as a starter unit was found in three bacterial species, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Streptomyces avermitilis. ...In addition, in R. erythropolis, pivalic acid was transformed into two starter units, i.e. isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acid, which served as precursors of corresponding iso-even FAs and anteiso-FAs. ...
A biosynthetic pathway using pivalic acid as a starter unit was found in three bacterial species, Alicyclobacillus acidoterres …
Carnitine and glucuronic acid conjugates of pivalic acid.
Vickers S, et al. Xenobiotica 1985. PMID 4036169
The [1-14C]pivaloyloxyethyl ester of methyldopa administered to man and cynomolgus monkeys resulted in the elimination in the urine of 14C-pivalic acid metabolites. ...Although the role of carnitine is in the transport of fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes, it may also function in the conjugation of carboxylic acid xenobiotics in humans....
The [1-14C]pivaloyloxyethyl ester of methyldopa administered to man and cynomolgus monkeys resulted in the elimination in the urine of 14C- …
Anaerobic mineralization of quaternary carbon atoms: isolation of denitrifying bacteria on pivalic acid (2,2-dimethylpropionic acid).
Probian C, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003. PMID 12620885 Free PMC article.
The degradability of pivalic acid was established by the isolation of several facultative denitrifying strains belonging to Zoogloea resiniphila, to Thauera and Herbaspirillum, and to Comamonadaceae, related to [Aquaspirillum] and Acidovorax, and of a nitrate-reducing bacterium affiliated with Moraxella osloensis. Pivalic acid was completely mineralized to carbon dioxide. The catabolic pathways may involve an oxidation to dimethylmalonate or a carbon skeleton rearrangement, a putative 2,2-dimethylpropionyl coenzyme A mutase....
The degradability of pivalic acid was established by the isolation of several facultative denitrifying strains belonging to Zo …
Primary carnitine deficiency and pivalic acid exposure causing encephalopathy and fatal cardiac events.
Rasmussen J, et al. J Inherit Metab Dis 2013. PMID 22566287
Pivalic acid exposure decreases carnitine levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association and pathophysiology of exposure to antibiotics containing pivalic acid and severe neurological and cardiac complications in six identified subjects suffering from PCD. ...All patients had been treated with antibiotics containing pivalic acid prior to the episode. CONCLUSION: Exposure to antibiotics containing pivalic acid was associated with encephalopathy and progression to lethal cardiac arrhythmia in patients suffering from PCD....
Pivalic acid exposure decreases carnitine levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association an
Disposition of S-1108, a new oral cephem antibiotic, and metabolic fate of pivalic acid liberated from [pivaloyl-14C]S-1108 in rats and dogs.
Mizojiri K, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995. PMID 7492083 Free PMC article.
[pivaloyl-14C]S-1108, which is 14C labeled at the pivalic acid moiety of the pivaloyloxymethyl side chain of S-1108, was administered orally to rats and dogs, and the disposition of pivalic acid cleft from S-1108 was examined. ...The differences in the disposition of pivalic acid between dogs and rats may account for differences in the degree of skeletal muscle disorders. ...
[pivaloyl-14C]S-1108, which is 14C labeled at the pivalic acid moiety of the pivaloyloxymethyl side chain of S-1108, was admin …
Biosynthesis and metabolic pathways of pivalic acid.
Rezanka T, et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2012 - Review. PMID 22790609
Occurrence, biosynthesis, and biodegradation of pivalic acid and other compounds, having a quaternary carbon atom by different bacteria, are described. We have summarized the relevant data that have so far been published, presenting them in a graphical form, i.e., as biodegradation pathways including B₁₂-dependent isomerization and desaturation that lead to the degradation of pivalic acid and similar compounds to products with other than quaternary carbon atoms, i.e., compounds whose catabolism is well known....
Occurrence, biosynthesis, and biodegradation of pivalic acid and other compounds, having a quaternary carbon atom by different …
Involvement of recognition and interaction of carnitine transporter in the decrease of L-carnitine concentration induced by pivalic acid and valproic acid.
Okamura N, et al. Pharm Res 2006. PMID 16826461
PURPOSE: Prodrugs with pivalic acid and valproic acid decrease L-carnitine concentration in plasma and tissues by urinary excretion of acylcarnitine as pivaloylcarnitine (PC) and valproylcarnitine (VC), respectively. ...
PURPOSE: Prodrugs with pivalic acid and valproic acid decrease L-carnitine concentration in plasma and tissues by urina …
Newborn hypocarnitinemia due to long-term transplacental pivalic acid passage.
Nasu T, et al. Pediatr Int 2014. PMID 25335995
It was concluded that the baby suffered from secondary hypocarnitinemia due to long-term prenatal treatment with antibiotics containing pivalic acid. Long-term treatment with antibiotics containing pivalic acid in pregnant women can induce hypocarnitinemia in both the mother and neonate; reported herein is the first case observed in humans....
It was concluded that the baby suffered from secondary hypocarnitinemia due to long-term prenatal treatment with antibiotics containing p
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