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. 2021 Sep;41(9):2024-2031.
doi: 10.1111/liv.14978. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Hepatitis C elimination in Sweden: Progress, challenges and opportunities for growth in the time of COVID-19

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Free PMC article

Hepatitis C elimination in Sweden: Progress, challenges and opportunities for growth in the time of COVID-19

Sarah Blach et al. Liver Int. 2021 Sep.
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background & aims: In 2014, the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Sweden was evaluated, to establish a baseline and inform public health interventions. Considering the changing landscape of HCV treatment, prevention, and care, and in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this analysis seeks to evaluate Sweden's progress towards the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination targets and identify remaining barriers.

Methods: The data used for modelling HCV transmission and disease burden in Sweden were obtained through literature review, unpublished sources and expert input. A dynamic Markov model was employed to forecast population sizes and incidence of HCV through 2030. Two scenarios ('2019 Base' and 'WHO Targets') were developed to evaluate Sweden's progress towards HCV elimination.

Results: At the beginning of 2019, there were 29 700 (95% uncertainty interval: 19 300-33 700) viremic infections in Sweden. Under the base scenario, Sweden would achieve and exceed the WHO targets for diagnosis, treatment and liver-related death. However, new infections would decrease by less than 10%, relative to 2015. Achieving all WHO targets by 2030 would require (i) expanding harm reduction programmes to reach more than 90% of people who inject drugs (PWID) and (ii) treating 90% of HCV + PWID engaged in harm reduction programmes and ≥7% of PWID not involved in harm reduction programmes, annually by 2025.

Conclusions: It is of utmost importance that Sweden, and all countries, find sustainability in HCV programmes by broadening the setting and base of providers to provide stability and continuity of care during turbulent times.

Keywords: COVID-19; Sweden; elimination; hepatitis C virus.

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. 2021 Apr;80:265-272.
doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2021.01.057. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events: an analysis of 112,198 individuals from 21 countries in the PURE study

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Association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events: an analysis of 112,198 individuals from 21 countries in the PURE study

Chuangshi Wang et al. Sleep Med. 2021 Apr.

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events.

Methods: Bedtime was recorded based on self-reported habitual time of going to bed in 112,198 participants from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Participants were prospectively followed for 9.2 years. We examined the association between bedtime and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Participants with a usual bedtime earlier than 10PM were categorized as 'earlier' sleepers and those who reported a bedtime after midnight as 'later' sleepers. Cox frailty models were applied with random intercepts to account for the clustering within centers.

Results: A total of 5633 deaths and 5346 major cardiovascular events were reported. A U-shaped association was observed between bedtime and the composite outcome. Using those going to bed between 10PM and midnight as the reference group, after adjustment for age and sex, both earlier and later sleepers had a higher risk of the composite outcome (HR of 1.29 [1.22, 1.35] and 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). In the fully adjusted model where demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors (including total sleep duration) and history of diseases were included, results were greatly attenuated, but the estimates indicated modestly higher risks in both earlier (HR of 1.09 [1.03-1.16]) and later sleepers (HR of 1.10 [1.02-1.20]).

Conclusion: Early (10 PM or earlier) or late (Midnight or later) bedtimes may be an indicator or risk factor of adverse health outcomes.

Keywords: Bedtime; Cardiovascular events; Mortality.

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Clinical Trial
. 2020 Dec 29;10(1):22417.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-79959-8.

Actionable and incidental neuroradiological findings in twins with neurodevelopmental disorders

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Free PMC article
Clinical Trial

Actionable and incidental neuroradiological findings in twins with neurodevelopmental disorders

Lynnea Myers et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

While previous research has investigated neuroradiological findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the entire range of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has not yet been well-studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Considering the overlap among NDDs and simultaneous development of the brain and face, guided by molecular signaling, we examined the relationship of actionable and incidental (non-actionable) MRI findings and NDD diagnoses together with facial morphological variants and genetic copy number variants (CNVs). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a twin cohort 8-36 years of age (57% monozygotic, 40% dizygotic), including 372 subjects (46% with NDDs; 47% female) imaged by MRI, 280 with data for facial morphological variants, and 183 for CNVs. Fifty-one percent of participants had MRI findings. Males had a statistically significantly higher percentage of MRI findings (57.7%) compared with females (43.8%, p = 0.03). Twin zygosity was not statistically significantly correlated with incidence or severity of specific MRI findings. No statistically significant association was found between MRI findings and any NDD diagnosis or facial morphological variants; however, MRI findings were statistically significantly associated with the number of CNVs (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.05, adjusted OR for sex 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50, p = 0.02). When combining the presence of MRI findings, facial morphological variants, and CNVs, statistically significant relationships were found with ASD and ADHD diagnoses (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.002, respectively). The results of this study demonstrate that the ability to identify NDDs from combined radiology, morphology, and CNV assessments may be possible. Additionally, twins do not appear to be at increased risk for neuroradiological variants.

Conflict of interest statement

M-L.H. is on the CLN2 Advisory Board for BioMarin Pharmaceuticals and receives book authorship royalties from McGraw-Hill. T.C. works as a child psychiatrist at PRIMA Psychiatry. S.B. discloses that he has in the last 5 years acted as an author, consultant or lecturer for Shire/Takeda, Medice, Roche, Eli Lilly, and Prima Psychiatry. S.B. receives royalties for textbooks and diagnostic tools from Huber/Hogrefe, Kohlhammer and UTB. L.M., E.C., K.L., R. K-H., and K.T. declare no potential conflicts of interest.

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. 2020 Dec;41:118-131.
doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.10.005. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Proinflammatory mediators and their associations with medication and comorbid traits in children and adults with ADHD

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Free article

Proinflammatory mediators and their associations with medication and comorbid traits in children and adults with ADHD

Liu L Yang et al. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2020 Dec.
Free article

Abstract

Peripheral immune activation can influence neurodevelopment and is increased in autism, but is less explored in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients with ADHD often display comorbid autism traits and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Plasma protein levels of two acute phase reactants, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), and two endothelial adhesion molecules, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), which share important roles in inflammation, were analyzed in 154 patients with ADHD and 61 healthy controls. Their associations with ADHD diagnosis, severity, medication and comorbid autistic symptoms, emotion dysregulation and GI symptoms were explored. The ADHD patients had increased levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 compared to healthy controls (p = 8.6e-05, p = 6.9e-07, respectively). In children with ADHD, the sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were higher among those with ADHD medication than among children (p = 0.0037, p = 0.0053, respectively) and adults (p = 3.5e-09, p = 1.9e-09, respectively) without ADHD medication. Among the adult ADHD patients, higher sICAM-1 levels were associated with increased comorbid autistic symptoms in the domains attention to detail and imagination (p = 0.0081, p = 0.00028, respectively), and higher CRP levels were associated with more GI symptoms (p = 0.014). sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were highly correlated with each other, and so were CRP and SAA levels. To conclude, vascular inflammatory activity may be overrepresented in ADHD, with elevated sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels and this may in children be a consequence of current ADHD medication, and in adults relate to increased comorbid autistic symptoms. Replication is warranted.

Keywords: ADHD; Adhesion molecules; Autism; Inflammation; Stimulants.

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. 2021 Oct;33(4):1448-1495.
doi: 10.1017/S0954579420000620.

Early environmental risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders - a systematic review of twin and sibling studies

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Free PMC article

Early environmental risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders - a systematic review of twin and sibling studies

Torkel Carlsson et al. Dev Psychopathol. 2021 Oct.
Free PMC article

Abstract

While neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are highly heritable, several environmental risk factors have also been suggested. However, the role of familial confounding is unclear. To shed more light on this, we reviewed the evidence from twin and sibling studies. A systematic review was performed on case control and cohort studies including a twin or sibling within-pair comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes, with environmental exposures until the sixth birthday. From 7,315 screened abstracts, 140 eligible articles were identified. After adjustment for familial confounding advanced paternal age, low birth weight, birth defects, and perinatal hypoxia and respiratory stress were associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and low birth weight, gestational age and family income were associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), categorically and dimensionally. Several previously suspected factors, including pregnancy-related factors, were deemed due to familial confounding. Most studies were conducted in North America and Scandinavia, pointing to a global research bias. Moreover, most studies focused on ASD and ADHD. This genetically informed review showed evidence for a range of environmental factors of potential casual significance in NDDs, but also points to a critical need of more genetically informed studies of good quality in the quest of the environmental causes of NDDs.

Keywords: confounding factors; environmental exposure; neurodevelopmental disorders; systematic review; twin and sibling studies.

Conflict of interest statement

None

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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2020 Oct;89:9-19.
doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.056. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Effects of a synbiotic on symptoms, and daily functioning in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - A double-blind randomized controlled trial

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Free article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Effects of a synbiotic on symptoms, and daily functioning in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - A double-blind randomized controlled trial

Elin Skott et al. Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Oct.
Free article

Abstract

Some prebiotics and probiotics have been proposed to improve psychiatric symptoms in children with autism. However, few studies were placebo-controlled, and there is no study on persons with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Our aim was to study effects of Synbiotic 2000 on psychiatric symptoms and functioning in children and adults with ADHD without an autism diagnosis. Children and adults (n = 182) with an ADHD diagnosis completed the nine weeks randomized double-blind parallel placebo-controlled trial examining effects of Synbiotic 2000 on the primary endpoints ADHD symptoms, autism symptoms and daily functioning, and the secondary endpoint emotion regulation, measured using the questionnaires SNAP-IV, ASRS, WFIRS, SCQ, AQ and DERS-16. Levels at baseline of plasma C-reactive protein and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), central to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion facilitating inflammatory responses in tissues, were measured using Meso Scale Discovery. Synbiotic 2000 and placebo improved ADHD symptoms equally well, and neither active treatment nor placebo had any statistically significant effect on functioning or sub-diagnostic autism symptoms. However, Synbiotic 2000, specifically, reduced sub-diagnostic autism symptoms in the domain restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in children, and improved emotion regulation in the domain of goal-directed behavior in adults. In children with elevated sVCAM-1 levels at baseline as well as in children without ADHD medication, Synbiotic 2000 reduced both the total score of autism symptoms, and the restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In adults with elevated sVCAM-1 at baseline, Synbiotic 2000 significantly improved emotion regulation, both the total score and four of the five subdomains. To conclude, while no definite Synbiotic 2000-specific effect was detected, the analysis of those with elevated plasma sVCAM-1 levels proposed a reduction of autism symptoms in children and an improvement of emotion regulation in adults with ADHD. Trial registration number: ISRCTN57795429.

Keywords: Autism; Emotion reactivity; Inflammation; Lactic acid bacteria; Lactobacillus; Prebiotics; Probiotics; Repetitive behavior; Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.

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. 2020 Dec;44(6):265-268.
doi: 10.1192/bjb.2020.28.

Psychoeducation and motivational interviewing to reduce relapses and increase patients' involvement in antipsychotic treatment: interventional study

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Free PMC article

Psychoeducation and motivational interviewing to reduce relapses and increase patients' involvement in antipsychotic treatment: interventional study

Gabriella Bröms et al. BJPsych Bull. 2020 Dec.
Free PMC article

Abstract

Aims and method: To assess whether the combination of motivational interviewing and psychoeducation affects relapse rate and stimulates involvement of people with psychosis in their treatment. We conducted an interventional study including patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with oral antipsychotics, without previous experience of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs). They were randomised to either psychoeducation with motivational interviewing or a control group. Hospital admissions 18 months before and after the intervention, and switches to LAIs 18 months after the intervention, were recorded.

Results: The two groups each comprised 101 participants. Fourteen from the intervention group and seven from the control group switched to LAIs. Five in the intervention group instigated the switch themselves, compared with zero controls (P = 0.06). Fourteen in the intervention group were readmitted to hospital during follow-up, compared with 23 in the control group (P = 0.14).

Clinical implications: Psychoeducation with motivational interviewing may increase patients' involvement in their treatment and reduce the relapse frequency.

Keywords: Motivational interviewing; adherence; antipsychotics; psychoeducation; schizophrenia.

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. 2019 Nov 26;9(1):317.
doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0653-9.

Early exposure to antibiotic drugs and risk for psychiatric disorders: a population-based study

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Free PMC article

Early exposure to antibiotic drugs and risk for psychiatric disorders: a population-based study

Catharina Lavebratt et al. Transl Psychiatry. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Early life exposure to infection, anti-infectives and altered immune activity have been associated with elevated risk of some psychiatric disorders. However, the risk from exposure in fetal life has been proposed to be confounded by familial factors. The hypothesis of this study is that antibiotic drug exposure during the fetal period and the first two postnatal years is associated with risk for later development of psychiatric disorders in children. All births in Finland between 1996 and 2012, 1 million births, were studied for antibiotic drug exposure: mothers during pregnancy and the children the first two postnatal years. The children were followed up for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic drug treatment until 2014. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate effects of antibiotic drug exposure on offspring psychiatric disorders. Modestly (10-50%) increased risks were found on later childhood development of sleep disorders, ADHD, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disorders, and other behavioral and emotional disorders with childhood onset (ICD-10 F98), supported by increased risks also for childhood psychotropic medication. The prenatal exposure effects detected were not explained by explored familial confounding, nor by registered maternal infections. To conclude, this longitudinal nation-wide study shows that early life antibiotic drug exposure is associated with an increased risk for childhood development of psychopathology. Given the high occurrence of early-life antibiotic exposure, these findings are of public health relevance. Whether the associations reflect effects of the antibiotic drug use or of the targeted infections remains to be explored further.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Published Erratum
. 2019 Nov 5;9(1):16377.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53159-5.

Publisher Correction: Mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with psychosis severity and anti-psychotic treatment

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Free PMC article
Published Erratum

Publisher Correction: Mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with psychosis severity and anti-psychotic treatment

Parvin Kumar et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

Erratum for

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Comparative Study
. 2019 Jun;49(6):2281-2290.
doi: 10.1007/s10803-018-03871-4.

Autism With and Without Regression: A Two-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study in Two Population-Derived Swedish Cohorts

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Free PMC article
Comparative Study

Autism With and Without Regression: A Two-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study in Two Population-Derived Swedish Cohorts

Lucy Thompson et al. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Jun.
Free PMC article

Abstract

Two community-based cohorts of children with autism spectrum disorder, examined using similar assessment protocols, were pooled (n = 301) and subdivided according to history of regression. Those with regression (n = 62), 20.5% of the combined cohort, were contrasted with those without regression (n = 241) at first assessment (age range 19-60 months) and at 2-year follow-up on a range of measures. The regression group was significantly more functionally impaired, with regard to intellectual function (p < .001), language development (p < .001), and to severity of autism (p < .01) at both T1 and T2. Only 14 (23.3%) had a clearly identified underlying etiology [24 (18.6%) in the non-regressive group]. There were no significant differences between those who had regressed 'from normal' and those who had regressed 'from low' functioning.

Keywords: ASD; Autism; Developmental language disorder; Intellectual developmental disorder; Non-regressive autism; Regressive autism.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interest.

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. 2018 Aug 24;8(1):12743.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-31122-0.

Mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with psychosis severity and anti-psychotic treatment

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Free PMC article

Mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with psychosis severity and anti-psychotic treatment

Parvin Kumar et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

Abstract

Mitochondrial pathology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. A few studies have proposed reduced leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I, compared to healthy controls. However, it is unknown if mtDNA copy number alteration is driven by psychosis, comorbidity or treatment. Whole blood mtDNA copy number was determined in 594 psychosis patients and corrected for platelet to leukocyte count ratio (mtDNAcnres). The dependence of mtDNAcnres on clinical profile, metabolic comorbidity and antipsychotic drug exposure was assessed. mtDNAcnres was reduced with age (β = -0.210, p < 0.001), use of clozapine (β = -0.110,p = 0.012) and risperidone (β = -0.109,p = 0.014), dependent on prescribed dosage (p = 0.006 and p = 0.026, respectively), and the proportion of life on treatment (p = 0.006). Clozapine (p = 0.0005) and risperidone (p = 0.0126) had a reducing effect on the mtDNA copy number also in stem cell-derived human neurons in vitro at therapeutic plasma levels. For patients not on these drugs, psychosis severity had an effect (β = -0.129, p = 0.017), similar to age (β = -0.159, p = 0.003) and LDL (β = -0.119, p = 0.029) on whole blood mtDNAcnres. Further research is required to determine if mtDNAcnres reflects any psychosis-intrinsic mitochondrial changes.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Observational Study
. 2018 Jul 13;18(1):223.
doi: 10.1186/s12888-018-1803-y.

Health-related quality of life and burden of illness in adults with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Sweden

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Free PMC article
Observational Study

Health-related quality of life and burden of illness in adults with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Sweden

E Ahnemark et al. BMC Psychiatry. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: This observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review aimed to identify factors determining health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Sweden.

Methods: Adult participants with a new clinical diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled from two specialist outpatient clinics in Stockholm, Sweden, from 2013 to 2015. Data extracted from patient records included demographics, clinical characteristics and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Depression severity was assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale - Self-reported (MADRS-S). The self-rated five-dimension EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D) was used to measure HRQoL. Predictors of EQ-5D index score were identified using multivariate linear regression adjusting for age, sex, education level, and main income source.

Results: The mean age of the 189 enrolled patients was 35.2 years (standard deviation [SD], 12.3), and 107 (57%) were female. Psychiatric comorbidities were present in 92 patients (49%), with anxiety and depression being the most common diagnoses. The mean EQ-5D index score was 0.63 (SD, 0.28). Low EQ-5D index scores were significantly associated with high MADRS-S scores, multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, low educational achievement, female sex, and not having a main income derived from employment or self-employment.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that adults with newly diagnosed ADHD experience low HRQoL, which may often be exacerbated by psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety and depression. Patients presenting with ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities in adulthood may require particular care and resources in the management of their ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD; HRQoL; Psychiatric comorbidities.

Conflict of interest statement

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Stockholm and the need for consent was waived due to the retrospective nature of the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. The data-gathering form was based on the recommendations for neuropsychiatric investigations of patients with suspected ADHD described in recent guidelines (www.psykiatristid.se) and validated by a clinical expert.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

Dr. Ewa Ahnemark is an employee of Shire and owns stock or stock options. The following authors have received compensation for serving as consultants or speakers for, or they or the institutions they work for have received research support or royalties from, the companies or organizations indicated: Dr. Marianne Di Schiena (Prima Child and Adult Psychiatry AB); Dr. Anne-Christine Fredman (Evolan, Lilly, Novartis, Servier, and Shire); Dr. Emma Medin (PAREXEL International); Dr. Jonas. K. Söderling (COMBINE Sweden, Novo Nordisk, and PAREXEL International); Dr. Ylva Ginsberg (Eli Lilly, HB Pharma, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, and Novartis).

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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. 2019 Mar;47(2):121-126.
doi: 10.1177/1403494818758912. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Mortality trends in external causes of death in people with mental health disorders in Sweden, 1987-2010

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Mortality trends in external causes of death in people with mental health disorders in Sweden, 1987-2010

Jonas Hällgren et al. Scand J Public Health. 2019 Mar.

Abstract

Aim: We investigated mortality from external causes in Swedish people who had been hospitalised with a severe mental disorder.

Methods: Hospitalisations in people aged 15 years or older admitted to hospital with a main diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder or unipolar mood disorder between 1987 and 2010 were linked to their causes of death.

Results: The mortality rate from all external causes was 20-fold higher in those with unipolar mood disorder, 15-fold higher in those with bipolar disorder and 12-fold higher in those with schizophrenia than in the general population. Over the study periods, the mortality rate declined more for people with unipolar mood disorder (-35%) and schizophrenia (-29%) than the total population (-25%) and those with bipolar mood disorder (-15%). The suicide rate declined most for those with unipolar mood disorder and schizophrenia (-42% for both) and less for the general population (-37%) and those with bipolar mood disorder (-21%). For external causes other than suicide, the mortality rate declined in the general population (-17%) but increased in people with schizophrenia (14%), bipolar mood disorder (30%) and unipolar mood disorder (52%).

Conclusions: People with mental disorders have high but declining excess mortality from suicide. Mortality from other external causes has increased, as has the gap in mortality rates between psychiatric patients and the general population.

Keywords: Depression; mortality; public mental health; suicide.

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. 2018 Mar 8;555(7695):190-196.
doi: 10.1038/nature25738. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe

Iñigo Olalde  1 Selina Brace  2 Morten E Allentoft  3 Ian Armit  4 Kristian Kristiansen  5 Thomas Booth  2 Nadin Rohland  1 Swapan Mallick  1   6   7 Anna Szécsényi-Nagy  8 Alissa Mittnik  9   10 Eveline Altena  11 Mark Lipson  1 Iosif Lazaridis  1   6 Thomas K Harper  12 Nick Patterson  6 Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht  1   7 Yoan Diekmann  13 Zuzana Faltyskova  13 Daniel Fernandes  14   15   16 Matthew Ferry  1   7 Eadaoin Harney  1 Peter de Knijff  11 Megan Michel  1   7 Jonas Oppenheimer  1   7 Kristin Stewardson  1   7 Alistair Barclay  17 Kurt Werner Alt  18   19   20 Corina Liesau  21 Patricia Ríos  21 Concepción Blasco  21 Jorge Vega Miguel  22 Roberto Menduiña García  22 Azucena Avilés Fernández  23 Eszter Bánffy  24   25 Maria Bernabò-Brea  26 David Billoin  27 Clive Bonsall  28 Laura Bonsall  29 Tim Allen  30 Lindsey Büster  4 Sophie Carver  31 Laura Castells Navarro  4 Oliver E Craig  32 Gordon T Cook  33 Barry Cunliffe  34 Anthony Denaire  35 Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy  17 Natasha Dodwell  36 Michal Ernée  37 Christopher Evans  38 Milan Kuchařík  39 Joan Francès Farré  40 Chris Fowler  41 Michiel Gazenbeek  42 Rafael Garrido Pena  21 María Haber-Uriarte  23 Elżbieta Haduch  43 Gill Hey  30 Nick Jowett  44 Timothy Knowles  45 Ken Massy  46 Saskia Pfrengle  9 Philippe Lefranc  47 Olivier Lemercier  48 Arnaud Lefebvre  49   50 César Heras Martínez  51   52   53 Virginia Galera Olmo  52   53 Ana Bastida Ramírez  51 Joaquín Lomba Maurandi  23 Tona Majó  54 Jacqueline I McKinley  17 Kathleen McSweeney  28 Balázs Gusztáv Mende  8 Alessandra Modi  55 Gabriella Kulcsár  24 Viktória Kiss  24 András Czene  56 Róbert Patay  57